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Circumcision: The Uniquely American Medical Enigma Edward Wallerstein

2020.11.23 01:34 DarthEquus Circumcision: The Uniquely American Medical Enigma Edward Wallerstein

The continuing practice of routine neonatal nonreligious circumcision represents an enigma, particularly in the United States. About 80 percent of the world's population do not practice circumcision, nor have they ever done so. Among the non-circumcising nations are Holland, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Scandinavia, the U.S.S.R., China, and Japan. People employing circumcision do so either for "health" reasons or as a religious ritual practiced by Muslims, Jews, most black Africans, non-white Australians, and others.
The origin of the ritual practice is unknown. There is evidence of its performance in Israel in Neolithic times (with flint knives) at least 6000 years ago.38 Jews accept the Old Testament origin as a covenant between God and Abraham,18 although it is generally agreed that the practice of circumcision in Egypt predated the Abrahamic Covenant by centuries.55 Ritual Circumcision is not germane to this discussion except insofar as the surgical ritual impinges upon accepted medical practice.65
So called "health" circumcision originated in the nineteenth century, when most diseases were of unknown etiology. Within the miasma of myth and ignorance, a theory emerged that masturbation caused many and varied ills. It seemed logical to some physicians to perform genital surgery on both sexes to stop masturbation; the major technique applied to males was circumcision. This was especially true in the English-speaking countries because it accorded with the mid-Victorian attitude toward sex as sinful and debilitating.64
The most prolific enumerator of the health benefits of circumcision was Dr. P. C. Remondino.50 In 1891 this physician claimed that the surgery prevented or cured about a hundred ailments, including alcoholism, epilepsy, asthma, enuresis, hernia, gout, rectal prolapse, rheumatism, kidney disease, and so forth. Such ludicrous claims are still disseminated and possibly believed. The book was reprinted in 1974, without change, and the Circulating Branch Catalogue of the New York Public Library (1983) listed the Remondino book, showing a publication date of 1974. One physician, writing in Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality (1974), called the book "pertinent and carefully thought out."63
Remondino was not the only one expounding such views. In 1911, Dr. Joseph Preuss, in a monumental tome, Biblical-Talmudic Medicine, claimed that Jewish ritual circumcision endowed health benefits; his sole source was Remondino46 Some espoused more extreme views; in 1910 an article in J.A.M.A. described a new circumcision clamp. The authoinventor claimed that with this device, the operation was so simple that men and women could now circumcise themselves.30
In the 75-year period (1875 to 1950) there was virtually no opposition to routine circumcision in the United States. Instead there were many articles in medical journal and textbooks extolling the practice; the issue was ignored in the popular press. Yet in the more than a century of acceptance of routine circumcision in the English-speaking countries, from 1870 to the present, no other country adopted newborn circumcision.
The first serious questioning of the practice did not occur until late 1949 (in England with the publication of Gairdner's "The Fate of the Foreskin."17 which began to affect the practice of circumcision by the British. In 1963, an editorial in J.A.M.A. called the attitude of the medical profession paradoxical and confused, and admitted that the facts about circumcision were still unknown.14 This was followed by several critiques of circumcision such as those by Morgan (1965 and 1967)38 and Preston (1970).45 In 1968 Øster confirmed Gairdner's findings,42 as did Reichelderfer and Fraga,49 who presented a comprehensive study of circumcision. Yet some physicians continued to support circumcision for surprising reasons. For example, Dr. Robert P. Boland, writing in The New England Journal of Medicine in 1969, compared circumcision with tonsillectomy, calling both procedures "ritualistic," and "widely performed on a non-scientific basis." He opposed routine tonsillectomy but concluded vis-a-vis circumcision: "Little serious objection can actually be raised against circumcision since its adverse effects seem miniscule."5
Table 1. Estimated Newborn Nonreligious Circumcision Rates in English-Speaking Countries.
Great Britain New Zeland Australia Canada America
1 10 30 30 80
In the 1970's, a change seemed in the offing. In 1971 and 1975, the American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Circumcision declared: "...there are no valid medical indications for circumcision in the neonatal period."2 In 1978, the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics was endorsed by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.64 In 1983 both groups jointly reaffirmed their positions.1 The "firm" firm declarations should have caused a marked drop in the United States circumcision rate. They did not.
To explore the circumcision rate in the United States, it is essential to compare the American experience with the other English-speaking countries. Anticircumcision articles appeared in the medical press in all of these countries. Gairdner17 and Øster42 were published in journals in England; Morgan (1967) was published in Australia.39 In 1971, the Australia Paediatric Association recommended: "Male infants should not as a routine be circumcised."13 In 1975, the Canadian Paediatric Society stated, ". . .there is no medical indication for circumcision in the neonatal period."57
Although there is no precise data on circumcision from any country,approximated rates for the English-speaking countries reveal that in Great Britain, the practice has virtually been abandoned; New Zealand follows closely behind. (In a 1982 visit, a number of physicians were apologetic for the "inordinately high" rate of 10 percent. Several physicians stated categorically that they refused to perform routine circumcisions.) The rates in Canada and Australia appear to be declining at about 10 percentage points per decade. The United States stands alone as the only country in the world in which the majority of newborn males are circumcised, purportedly for health reasons.
Before addressing the phenomenon of circumcision in the United States let us examine the Canadian and Australian data. In Canada (Table 2), there are considerable rate differences among the provinces but the overall rate is clearly declining, and in Quebec the practice has been virtually been discontinued. In Australia (Table 3), unlike Canada, the rates by states are relatively uniform, but clearly declining. In 1978, the Australia government recommended that payments for circumcision be reduced or eliminated.71 (In a visit to Australia in 1982, I was told that a national campaign was planned to reduce unnecessary surgery; circumcision was high on the list.)
Table 2. Hospital Inpatient Male Newborn Circumcision in Canada by Province (data from British Columbia and Newfoundland not reported)* 1970 to 1978 by Rank Order of Percentage change
1970 1979 Change (% rounded)
Total 64,015 44,853 -30
Quebec 12,995 3,077 -76
Nova Scotia 2,477 1,004 -60
New Brunswick 1,543 673 -43
Alberta 10,857 9,608 -12
Manitoba 5,006 4,424 -11
Ontario 24,476 26,283 +4
Saskatchewan 3,276 3,655 +12
Table 3 Estimated Neonatal Circumcision Rate in Australia by State, 1973-74 to 1979-80(%)* Adapted from Wirth, J.L.: Current circumcision practices in Australia. Med. J. Aust., 1:179, 1982.
1973-74 1979-80 % Decrease
Total 49 39 10
New South Wales 52 42 10
Victoria 39 28 11
Queensland 62 51 11
South Australia 47 41 6
Western Australia 51 38 13
Tasmania 68 43 25
Although nationwide data on circumcision for Canada and Australia are admittedly imperfect, precise data for the United States are virtually non-existent. The H.E.W. Hospital Records Study excludes neonates.70 The Cycle III Health Examination Survey, conducted from 1963 to 1965 among youths aged 12 to 17, reflected the practice of circumcision in the early 1950's.70 The total circumcision rate was 765 (whites, 80 percent; blacks, 45 percent); regional differences were also noted.
In 1980 Wallerstein provided a crude compendium of circumcision rates reported in the literature.64 This was updated in 1981 by King and Roebuck.29 Since these compendia, other reports from individual hospitals have been noted in the literature (Table 4).25 Of the five hospitals reporting, the lowest rate was 80.7 percent; the other rates ranged from 90 to 98 percent. These data are static, that is, reported within a fixed period, making it impossible to discern a trend. Several hospitals reported longitudinal changes. One New York City maternity center stated that "in the past" the rate was 90 percent; in 1980 it was 60 percent.35 Other reports are more precise, indicating changes from 1978 to 1980, and 1975 to 1979 (Table 4, last two hospitals).3 The year-to-year changes were negligible; clearly there was no precipitous decline. This stability of rate was confirmed by the Commission on Professional and Hospital Activities, which publishes annual data based on projections from atypically large hospitals.72 They show a 1970 rate of 88 percent and a 1980 rate of 86 percent. The mean rates from 1970 to 1975 and from 1976 to 1980 are identical (86 percent).54
Table 4. Circumcision Rates, Selected Hospitals
References: 25, 29, 27, 34, 3, 41 respectively
Hospital Years Rates(%)
New Britain General Hospital, Connecticut 1976-77 80.7
Southern Illinois Hospital 1979 95
John Hopkins Hospital 1980 97.6
St. Agnes Hospital, Baltimore 1981 96-98
Hershey. Pennsylvania Hospital 1983 90-96
George Washington University Medical Hospital 1979 79
1979 77
1980 81
Largest Hospital in Salt Lake County, Utah 1975 92
1976 93
1977 92
1978 92
1979 93
In 1982 Slatkowski and King approached the question of circumcision rates specifically with respect to the pronouncements of the American Academy of Pediatrics on the practice of circumcision in Illinois.54 They obtained data from 18 Chicago-area hospitals; the rates ranged from 27 to 92 percent (mean 78 percent). Five of the hospitals reported rates from 80 to 88 percent; five from 90 to 92 percent; the rates ranged from 74 to 97 percent, with a single exception: one hospital reported a rate of 4.5 percent. Upon further query, that hospital reported a circumcision rate decline beginning after 1974-75.
These United States data reveal no significant national decline in the circumcision rate desperate the pronouncements of the American Academy of Pediatrics or the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. However there are instances of sharp declines in several hospitals. Dr. Joan Hodgman, director of the Newborn Division of the Los Angeles County University of Southern California Medical Center, reported in 1983 that their circumcision rate is zero. Similarly, J.H.T. Chang, pediatric surgeon at the Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas, the largest in the city, stated in 1983 that circumcision is not performed even if the parents demand it.24
Why have most United States physicians persisted in the practice? One reason is that the medical and popular literature abounds in serious errors of scientific judgment, equivocation, and obfuscation. Space limitations permit a brief examination of four issues: pain, venereal disease, cancer, and hygiene.
Pain of circumcision is not a debatable question; it is a fact.21 However, a perusal of writings in the popular press (1982 and 1983) reveals confusion. Proctor and Gamble, one of the nations largest advertisers, promotes Pampers to parents by offering the Expectant Parents Information Kit (1982), which contains the following statement: "You may be surprised to learn that circumcision will not be painful to your baby because, at this early stage of development, the penis does not yet have functioning nerve endings."15
A contrary view was found in American Baby (May 1983), in which parents were told that "Newborns who undergo circumcision experience a great deal of stress and pain . . ." Parents were advised that it was now possible to employ local anesthetics to alleviate such pain.36
Mother's Manual (1982) argues against local anesthesia because ". . . it swells the area to the extent of making an unsatisfactory circumcision too likely."7 Genesis, published by the American Society for Psychoprophylaxis in Obstetrics, carried an article in 1982 in which two writers who attended a Jewish ritual circumcision described the surgery as bloodless, painless and stressless. They suggested that non-Jewish parents explore the possibility of employing ritual circumcisors.11
Parents who read such an array of literature are bound to be bewildered.
Prior to the turn of the century, little was known about venereal disease, either causes or cures. Understandably, the false claim could be made with impunity that circumcision prevented sexually transmitted diseases.64 These claims persisted beyond the middle of the twentieth century: Urologist A. Ravich titled his 1973 book Preventing V.D. and Cancer by Circumcision.18
Within the past decade there has been virtually no statement that circumcision prevents syphilis or gonorrhea; the present day "whipping boy" is genital herpes. Even a cursory exploration of a link between circumcision and herpes reveals that such claims are without foundation; the presence or absence of the foreskin neither aids nor deters the transmission of herpes. A definitive statement regarding this claim was made in 1979 by Y.M. Felman, director of the New York City Bureau of Venereal Disease Control: ". . . I don't believe that circumcision is of any value in preventing genital herpes, as this disease is quite common in circumcised males and their female sex partners."16
Yet in 1981, Warner and Strashin wrote: "Herpes genitalis appears to be the only sexually transmitted disease associated with circumcision status."67 Strashin defended his statement the following year.68 If circumcision prevents herpes or deters its transmission, how can we explain the phenomenal rise in the incidence of this disease to epidemic proportions, particularly among the most sexually active males, ages 15 to 25, of whom perhaps 75 percent are circumcised? Nevertheless, the 1975 American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force reported: "Adequate studies to determine the relationship between circumcision and the incidence of venereal disease have not been performed." This statement is obvious outdated.
Few diseases strike greater fear than cancer, and no site is more potentially alarming to males than the penis. It is not surprising, therefore that when newborn circumcision is presented as an absolute prophylaxis against penile carcinoma, it is a potent argument for circumcision. Wolbarst wrote in 1932: ". . . cancer of the penis does not occur in Jews circumcised in infancy. There is no case on record."73 Subsequent research indicate that there are such cases on record.4
The understatement of the incidence of penile cancer in Jews should be contrasted with the overstatement in regard to the uncircumcised people of India and China. In 1973, deKernion and colleagues wrote: ". . . the disease accounts for 12 percent of all malignancies among the Hindus of India."12 In 1977 Kaplan claimed, "In China, penile carcinoma accounts for 18 percent of all carcinomata."28 In a visit to the Peoples Republic of China (1976) and India (1982) the incidence of penile cancer was discussed with health officials. They stated that no nationwide health data was available; more specifically, no National Cancer Registries were maintained (much as they would like to do so). They remarked that no reputable scientist in their country would provide such data. Precise data on penile cancer are available from countries in which a National Cancer Registry is maintained. The United States does not maintain such a Registry, and so its data are imprecise. The data from Japan, Norway, and Sweden are compared with the United States' estimates (Table 5). The largest difference in incidence is between the United States and Sweden, three cases per million males; for death rates, the difference between the United States and Japan is one case per million males, small differences indeed. It is worthy of note that in countries in which a National Cancer Registry is maintained and precise incidence or death rates is known, routine circumcisions continues not to be practiced. There is no acceptance of the claimed epidemiologic relationship between circumcision and penile cancer.
Table 5. Penile Cancer: Comparison of Approximate Incidence and Death Rates per 100,000 Males for Selected Countries*
*Data from Cancer Deaths 1980 Ministry of Health and Welfare, Tokyo, Japan for Japan. For other countries; Wallerstein, E.: Circumcision an American Health Fallacy. New York, Springer Publications. 1980.
Country Year Incidence Death Rate
America 1972 0.8/100,000 0.3
Japan 1980 N/A 0.2
Norway 1967 1.1 N/A
Sweden 1968 1 1 N/A
It could be argued that in Japan, Norway, Sweden, high standards of hygiene are maintained. The variable in penile cancer prophylaxis may be hygiene, not retention of foreskin. This is essentially the position taken by the 1975 American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force, which denied a relationship between circumcision and prostatic cancer and stated that "non-circumcision is not of primary etiological significance" in cervical cancer.2 In regard to penile cancer, they wrote: "There is evidence that carcinoma of the penis can be prevented by neonatal circumcision. There also is evidence that optimal hygiene confers as much or nearly as much protection" (emphasis added)2 In 1981, 6 years later, Grossman and Posner took a more forthright position. Writing in Obstetrics and Gynecology, they stated: "No one today seriously promotes circumcision as a prophylactic against cancer in any form. No significant correlation between cancer and circumcision has ever been proved."22
The claim that circumcision is related to penile cancer is based upon the "fact" that smegma is a carcinogen. Smegma in infancy consists solely of desquamated epithelial cells, and in adulthood additionally of the secretions of the Tyson's glands. Many attempts have been made to prove a simple cause and effect between smegma and cancer; all failed but one. In 1947 Plaut and Kohn-Speyer "demonstrated" that smegma was a carcinogen. Of the animals examined, 27 percent of those treated with smegma developed cancer whereas 15 percent of the animals treated with cerumen developed cancer.44 Is it now possible to claim that cerumen is also a carcinogen with only one half of the carcinogeneity of smegma? This study is deficient in conceptualization, methodology, execution, gathering of data, and analysis.44 Understandably, the study has largely been ignored; however, as recently as 1981 it was accepted in one medical journal article without question.23
Penile cancer scare techniques are still with us. In 1980, Kochen and McCurdy stated that ". . . uncircumcised men are uniquely at risk . . ." They "demonstrated" that the predicted lifetime risk among uncircumcised men was one in 600.31 They did not address why 599 out of 600 at risk" males will not contract penile cancer in their lifetime. More importantly, Kochen and McCurdy based their calculations on the 1968 Stern and Lachenbruch study of one cancer detection center in Los Angeles.59 Their 1968 data are obviously skewed in age, ethnicity, religion, social class, and so forth, and are admittedly non-random. Such inadequate local data should not be extrapolated to a national statistic.
The threat of penile cancer hangs over the discussion of circumcision like some mystical demon. It deserves to be exorcised, not circumcised.
In several studies, mothers were asked why they agreed to their son's circumcision. The answer given most frequently was "hygiene."53 (In a 1981 United Nations study of female genital surgery in Africa, one reason given for such surgery was "hygiene."19 ) Why is male genital hygiene viewed with such alarm in the United States that prophylactic surgical intervention is necessary?
For over a century, and to this day, mothers have been warned that proper penile hygiene involves full retraction of the foreskin to clean the glans of smegma, and this procedure should start almost at day one. Such a task is virtually impossible, because in almost all infants the foreskin is attached firmly to the glans. Separation occurs normally within a few months or several years. Separation may be forced but this literally involves tearing the tissues apart, which is usually painful and may result in bleeding. No sane mother enjoys causing distress to her child. No wonder there is fear and reluctance about retraction of the foreskin. This has created a foreskin phobia. Forced retraction of the foreskin may lead to complications, and may well be the reason for so many postinfancy circumcisions (only in the United States).
The problem with this hygienic technique is that it is totally in error. Care of the foreskin is not exceedingly difficult; it is exceedingly simple: leave it alone. The foreskin in infancy should not be retracted. In 1977 Kaplan wrote, " . . . freeing 'adhesions is tantamount to cruel and unusual punishment and is unfounded physiologically or medically."28 Development of the foreskin and the inadvisability of forced retraction was noted by Gairdner (1949),17 Øster (1968),42 Reichelderfer and Fraga (1968),49 and others.
Many, if not most, American physicians are ignorant of proper care of the foreskin. This was demonstrated by Osborn and colleagues in 1981, who queried Utah pediatricians and found that 67 percent estimated that the foreskin should retract easily by one year.40 This is contrary to all findings of studies of the foreskin. Only 3 percent said the newborn foreskin should never be retracted. In interviewing a small sample of mothers of uncircumcised boys, Osborn and colleagues also found that retraction of the foreskin caused such anxiety that 40 percent of these mothers stated that they would have their next male infant circumcised.
The problem is not limited to Utah. In a study of physicians in the Chicago area, Patel and colleagues reported in 1982 that "only 49 percent of the physicians [in the total sample] were aware of the AAP's [American Academy of Pediatrics position."43 Among the pediatricians and obstetricians in the sample, 62 percent were aware of this position. The major reason given for recommending circumcision was "hygiene" (90 percent). In a 1982 study by Stein and colleagues conducted in San Diego, they noted, "Only 36 percent of the responding physicians were aware that the newborn's foreskin is characteristically not found retractable."58 When asked "if a nonretractable foreskin is an indication for circumcision," 47 percent of all respondents answered incorrectly. Such incorrect responses were mare likely to be given by those in family practice (50 percent), obstetrics (55 percent), and general practice (67 percent) than by those in pediatrics (13 percent). At the Spring 1983 meeting of the American Academy of Pediatrics in Philadelphia, an exhibit on circumcision was conducted. The most frequently asked question related to proper care of the foreskin.
If physicians are ill-informed about care of the foreskin, how can parents be well informed? There are thousands of books, pamphlets, and articles available to parents relating to child care. Almost none devotes attention to proper care of the foreskin. Discharging a circumcised child without informing the parents of proper wound care constituted negligence. Discharging an uncircumcised child without informing the parents of proper care of the foreskin is equally negligent. Osborn and colleagues reported that the only written information they could find on the subject was this statement in a 1978 book: " . . .retract the foreskin gently and return the foreskin to its normal position to prevent constriction and swelling."8 To begin to correct this lack of information, in 1982 Wallerstein wrote a pamphlet entitled "When Your Baby Boy is Not Circumcised."66 Boyce also addressed the subject in an article entitled "Care of the Foreskin (1983).6 The American Academy of Pediatrics has issued a pamphlet entitled "Care of the Uncircumised Penis" (1984).
The issue of hygiene is obfuscated by the American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force Report in two ways. As noted earlier, the Report stated that to prevent penile cancer, "optimum hygiene was necessary. The reader, lay public or physician may ask: What constitutes "optimum hygiene? Can parents guarantee such optimum care? If not, isn't it better to play it safe and circumcise? The Report also cautions that retention of the foreskin requires "lifelong" hygiene. This statement is not incorrect; it is incomplete. All body parts require lifelong hygiene, body bathing, hair shampooing, oral hygiene, labial hygiene, and so forth. The discontinuance of any aspect of hygiene may well have deleterious effects. Why single out the foreskin?
The crux of the circumcision/hygiene rationale had its origin in the fear of the "effects" of masturbation; this may persist in attenuated form. Today, however, it is basically a lack of knowledge: the foreskin and glans in infancy are essentially fused, and should not be retracted forcibly, and smegma is not a carcinogen.
Another claimed hygienic benefit is that thousands of United States servicemen, particularly in the South Pacific required circumcision. Would it not be better to circumcise in infancy and thereby avoid the more troublesome operation in adulthood? However, Japanese soldiers were fighting in the identical environment, and the Japanese did not practice newborn circumcision. When Japanese health officials were visited by Wallerstein (1982), they stated that to the best of their knowledge, Japanese military surgeons did not find it necessary to circumcise after World War II. More to the point, in the event of thermonuclear war, the role of the foreskin will pale to insignificance.
Thus, much of the current circumcision misinformation, both lay and professional, is false and misleading. In 1971 and 1975, the American Academy of Pediatrics appeared to take definitive positions; actually they did not. The American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on the Fetus and Newborn noted in 1971 that "there are no valid medical indications for circumcision in the neonatal period."2 in 1975, the American Academy of Pediatrics Ad Hoc Task Force on Circumcision reported that there was no basis for changing this statement and concluded, "There is no absolute medical indication for routine circumcision of the newborn."2
However, as previously noted, the use of the words "optimum" and "lifelong" with regard to to penile hygiene and the stated uncertainty of a possible link between circumcision and venereal disease represented equivocation. An additional equivocation is found in the 1975 Report: "A diagnosis of phimosis cannot be made with assurance in the newborn period because the cleavage plane between the glans and the deep preputial layer of the penis is not developed at birth. There is a real need for research which will improve diagnostic accuracy in this area."2
In 1983, this statement was challenged by Thompson, who chaired the ad hoc Committee. He wrote: "One major reason used to justify neonatal circumcision - correction or prevention of phimosis has been shown to be untenable by serial studies from birth to adulthood."62 Furthermore, overwhelming epidemiologic evidence from countries that never adopted circumcision or abandoned the practice obviates the need for further study.
Thompson also provided the setting for the equivocation and the absence of a more definitive position: "The ad hoc commmittee was sharply divided in its opinions, and the resulting statement was a compromise that stated that there was no absolute medical indication for routine circumcision of the newborn.' The words absolute and routine were meant to convey a different impression from the conclusion of the AAP Committee on the Fetus and Newborn, but this has no always been the interpretation of readers."62
If the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee was sharply divided and the report subject to misinterpretation, how can physicians and parents take an unequivocal position on circumcision? They cannot. And if the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics is equivocal, the position of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists is even more so. When the American Academy of Pediatrics committees reported, the statements were published.56 The endorsements of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists were not published in their journal.64 Moreover, in 1978 Grimes raised an unanswered question: " . . . the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Inc., warns that 'physicians who assume responsibility for the health of male patients for operative or other care will not be regarded as specialists in obstetrics-gynecology . . .'"20 It is well known that obstetricians perform a large percentage of circumcisions.
The acceptance of circumcision was noted by Herrera is 1983, who reported on a nationwide survey of 400 pediatricians and obstetricians; 50 percent believed circumcision indicated in the newborn, 33 percent opposed, and 17 percent were undecided.26 As to advice to parents, there was acquiescence; 15 percent encouraged it, 19 percent discouraged it, and 66 percent remained neutral. "This is one reason why nearly every male neonate is circumcised," Herrera wrote.26
Ambivalence on the part of physicians about circumcision was illustrated in one study by a Canadian hospital in 1983 where there were two patients with a serious complication of circumcision, denuding of the penile shaft that required plastic surgery. A formal proposal to suspend neonatal circumcisions was made but rejected because of anticipated adverse community reaction. However, the circumcision rate in that hospital dropped from about 40 to 20 percent as a result of the mishaps.61
Judging from the record, American medical professionals are not truly opposed to circumcision; they perform about 1.25 million annually. Some continue to insist that there are health benefits. Some physicians place the responsibility on the parents. In 1983 Maisels and colleagues wrote, "If circumcision practices are ever to be changed, such changes will likely result from organized advocacy of lay groups . . . rather than from the efforts of the medical profession."34 However when physicians demonstrated that routine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy were unwise, the rate dropped. No amount of parental pressure would cause an ethical physician to perform such an operation if it were unnecessary.
Some charge venality, possibly true for some physicians, but not for all, and impossible to document. Some of the highest circumcision rates are to be found in military hospitals, where the doctors are salaried. Contrast this with the abandonment of routine tonsillectomy; some physicians had reduced revenues, but no one clamored for the reinstatement of the procedure to refill the coffers. Venality may not be dismissed entirely; in private practice, circumcision results in a fee, and there is loss of time convincing parents not to have their sons circumcised.
Then there is the Jewish question. Some non-Jewish physicians may be hesitant to question routine "health" circumcision in the mistaken belief that this stance may offend Jews. However, according to Jewish theologians, the Jewish ritual has nothing to do with health.64 Obversely, occasional private comments suggest that Jews are responsible for nonreligious circumcision. This is a canard.
The "enigma" lies in the United States medical profession's apparent inability to come to grips with the simple fact that there are no demonstrable health benefits of circumcision, and there are risks. (Space limitations preclude delineation.) It should also be noted that the foreskin is useful erogenous, and protective tissue. Smegma, both clitoral and penile, is beneficial, not detrimental. Meatitis is not uncommon in circumcised males; rare in the uncircumcised. Moreover, the penis is the only organ subjected to routine prophylactic surgery.
One explanation for holding to outmoded views was provided by a medical professor who told his students, "It takes less than five minutes to print an article in a medical journal and 50 years to erase it." In 1979 Colletti approximated this estimate. He noted that efforts to reverse current circumcision practice "will need at least a generation of widespread education, coaxing, and encouragement to succeed."10 Warner and Strashin are even more pessimistic, based upon an erroneous premise: "As for the likelihood of a successful hygiene education program we can only point to our own profession's impotence in combating smoking and obesity."68 This approach overlooks the fact that hundreds of millions of dollars are expended annually to promote smoking and food intake. No such effort on behalf of circumcision exists.
As scientific evidence mounted to dispute each of Remondino's exaggerated claims, physicians clutched at straws to retain at least one "health" benefit. Now that all such claims have been refuted, circumcision today has become cultural surgery, not very different from ear- and nose-piercing and tattooing. The extreme to which such cultural surgery is carried may be found in the 1983 warning given by the British Social Service Secretary to Harley Street surgeons who charged up to $1500 for a clitoridectomy performed on young girls from Africa, where such surgery is traditional.69 More serious examples were found in France in 1982.52
The medical profession was successful in eliminating routine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. This is precisely what is needed for routine circumcision. It is necessary to overcome ignorance and the emotional superstructure surrounding the penis, not very different from ancient (and present phallic worship. It is necessary to accept scientific facts; it is necessary to discard myths about circumcision: the foreskin causes premature ejaculation, it keeps the penis from growing, some disaster will befall the uncircumcised child, the uncovered glans is more esthetically pleasing (that is the foreskin is ugly). The special myth that the boy's penis must be identical to his father's ignores the historic truth that no objection was raised, and no problem arose when circumcising millions of boys whose fathers were uncircumcised.
To resolve the problem, the positions of the American Academy of Pediatrics and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists should become definitive statements that circumcision is unnecessary surgery, not to be undertaken except in rare medical circumstances. Endorsements of this position should be obtained from all relevant medical groups. This information should be disseminated to the entire medical profession, to all hospitals, nurses and nursing associations, childbirth educators, and most certainly to parents via the popular press. Meetings professional and lay persons should be called on local, state and national levels to discuss circumcision. With such an approach, routine newborn nonreligious circumcision will soon pass from the scene to join blood-letting and cupping in medical history.
As Prucha observed in 1980, "The history of these few millimeters of skin is utterly fascinating."47
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2020.11.20 07:23 ThrowRA_Blue2 I want to a make a fake dating profile of my ex

Hear me out. We were together 2 years, even lived together. I had a bad feeling and contacted his ex to ask HER version of why they broke up. I found out he was messaging other girls and sending nudes back and forth, making sex videos with people in our bed, and that he’d lied when we met, and he gave me genital herpes. His ex told me he did all that and worse to her. I confronted him. It didn’t go well. We broke up.
It’s been a week, and he’s back on the dating site we met on.
I want to make a new fake profile for HIM on the site, same pic. But in the info I write like “I cheat on all my girlfriends, I have herpes, I’m a liar.” A warning to help stop some other girl from falling for his tricks and getting hurt and have a STD. Since he’s not looking at other men’s profiles, he shouldn’t ever see it, right?
Is there anything illegal about doing that?
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2020.11.20 04:06 Krymestone My Top 15 Supernatural Episodes

I concocted this a few weeks ago and I’m just a nobody fan but I wanted to put this here anyway. Get ready for a long post...
My Top 15 Supernatural Episodes
This was an incredibly hard list to compile. Not just because of how many episodes there are, and how many years and great characters--there are just so many episodes with so many great characters it’s hard to choose which would be the best 15. That’s impossible for me, so I’m just choosing my 15 favorite episodes. The ones I can always go back and re-watch, with no problem. You may disagree with the choices, the order, but that’s OK. You can always make your own list. In the meantime, grab a six pack, some burgers, fire up the classic rock, and kick back. And if you’re like Sam…a salad will do.
15. “Wendigo” (S1 E2)
For me, for some reason, every time I think of “Supernatural”, the “Wendigo” episode comes to mind. Maybe it’s because it’s the first episode that resonated for me. It certainly resonated for Sam Winchester, who cites the encounter with this creature much later on in the show (“Remember when we were just hunting Wendigos?”, from “Two Minutes to Midnight”). It’s a fun episode, very early “X-Files” like and reinforces the “Monster of the Week” trope that became so popular in shows like this. Still searching for their dad, they follow coordinates that lead them to Blackwater Ridge, a popular camping site where campers are being hunted and killed by a Wendigo. Sam and Dean team up with a family and a guide to find a missing brother. As much as I admired the pilot (and did actually watch it when it premiered back in 2005), it is this episode that usually gets the most re-watches. Of course, Sam’s reminiscing about this particular time was because it was simpler, innocent times. It was when the show was young enough to be unaware of what lies ahead. For me, this was the real “starting point” of the show.
14. “Fan Fiction” (S10 E5)
Normally, and nearly always, I roll my eyes when there’s a “musical” episode on the horizon of a TV show. It’s been done to death, and just because it had been done well (“Buffy”, of course), doesn’t mean it needed to be done by every show. Well, “Supernatural” did about as good a job you could with this because they had fun with it. And it was a fun episode. It was nice to see another meta episode handle the in-jokes well. I like that the whole cast was female, and I liked seeing Dean get into it. Sam and Dean investigate the disappearance of a teacher at a high school, and find out that the school is putting on a production of…“Supernatural”, complete with all the main characters, situations, and references to their previous adventures. While the musical continues in production, Sam and Dean investigate and Sam realizes that their “monster” (reference to MOTW) is a Muse, Calliope. The best part, for me, was the ensemble singing an a cappella rendition of “Carry On My Wayward Son”, the season finale intro sequence.
13. “Heart” (S2 E17)
This episode surprised me. I didn’t expect to get emotionally involved in a one-off the way that I did. Here we have Sam falling for a woman, for the first time since he lost his true love Jessica. But there’s a catch, of course, and it winds up being a pretty serious one. Especially, how they have to end things. I mean, we couldn’t have Sam riding into the sunset with a squeeze, right? That would be too nice. Unfortunately, Madison, the love interest, turns out to be a werewolf, and Sam has to make the ultimate decision on whether to protect her from herself, or slay her himself. The use of Queensryche’s “Silent Lucidity” is what makes this episode powerful though. I mean, the show is renowned for its soundtrack through the years. But you’ll never hear this song the same way when you see those single tears…
12. “Lebanon” (S14 E13)
John Winchester. That’s why this one‘s in here. I’m a huge fan of reunions and this was as close to a cast reunion you could get to, for the Family Winchester. The rest of the episode is pretty unremarkable, which is why this one is listed so low. I absolutely loved the scenes with the Winchesters sharing a meal and drinks, good times. But the subplot of the teenagers (Stacy and Max) stealing the Impala, the John Wayne Gacy ghost, just feels like it should have been its own story--but one that’s already been done before. So it was kind of shoehorned in, to pad out the rest of the episode. What’s unfortunate about that is that it wasn’t necessary. The power those few scenes had with John telling his sons how proud he was of them, and he and Mary getting to be together again, could have been its own whole episode. So while this is also a criticism of a bigger missed opportunity, it still stands as one of the most memorable moments in “Supernatural” history. I love “gangs-all-here” sentiments, and this one brings it.
11. “Time After Time After Time” (S7 E12)
Another thing that I loved about “Supernatural” is how closely related it was to “The X-Files”, one of my all-time favorite shows (for the first 5 or so seasons anyway). Not only in thematic and structural ways, but also the people making it. This show brought over veterans like John Shiban and Kim Manners (until his passing), and made references to the show a lot. It also brought over actors like Mitch Pileggi and one of my personal favorites, Nicholas Lea. Lea was famous for playing Alex Krycek in “The X-Files”, a nemesis of Fox Mulder’s and one of the best villains during that period of television. In this episode, Dean is brought back into the 1940’s to get the help of Elliot Ness, played by Lea. Ness turns out to be a hunter himself, and he and Dean team up to stop Chronos, a time-god. The idea of Dean getting to live in the 40’s is amusing, and it’s fun to see Jensen and Lea have some fun screen time together. For Lea’s part, he’s good as Ness. It’s a joy to watch, and it’s always on my mind as a re-watch whenever revving up the “Supernatural” episodes.
10. “Baby” (S11 E4)
At some point during the run of the show, I know many fans would think of this as a great idea for an episode. The ‘67 Chevy Impala essentially became a character itself; because of Dean’s obsessive nature toward it, and because of its history with the show. It was basically General Lee from “Dukes of Hazzard”. So this episode gives fan service to that, and literally gives us an episode from the perspective of Baby, the Impala. In order to keep the perspective going without being too conspicuous, the car sees a lot of action. It even gets temporarily “stolen” (unbeknownst to Dean, thankfully). The episode is also a monster-of-the-week with this one being a nachzehrer (say that five times fast), and features a lesson in numismatics, that we stopped using copper for pennies after 1982. There’s some great gory moments in this one, and some humor involving Castiel being made to watch Netflix. The Baby gimmick could have petered out quickly and become more of a distraction (such as “Bitten”); but this works delightfully, and ends on a high note with the Brothers Winchester singing “Night Moves” together. Because, as Dean confirms, everything is a Bob Seger song.
9. “Bad Day at Black Rock” (S3 E3)
Another fun episode in which Sam & Dean are trying to stave off a good-luck curse in the form of a rabbit’s foot that their father had kept locked away. It gets stolen by two incompetent thieves who turn out to be hired by Bela (a recurring villainess). The episode starts getting good when Sam retrieves the foot from the thieves, accidentally touching it, and possessing a streak of good luck. When he loses it, his luck becomes the complete opposite--dangerously so, as you inevitably die (as proven by the dimwitted thieves). Dean also gets a turn with it, playing the lotto so he’ll win a bunch of cash. It becomes about as caperish as you could get, with everyone vying for this good luck charm that you literally have to keep on you, or else you’ve got a date with death. One of my favorite lines, maybe from any episode, is when Sam just sadly walks up to Dean and simply says, “I lost a shoe.”
8. “Just My Imagination” (S11 E8)
I didn’t expect to like this episode at all. I knew Nate Torrence from various TV ads he was doing years ago, and I just couldn’t stand him. But not only did my feelings toward him change, they changed hard. I loved his performance as Sully, Sam’s imaginary friend, and his importance to Sam’s childhood and maturity. During Sam’s childhood, Sully tried to help him accept himself and his decisions. Ultimately of course, Sam abandons Sully (after promising they’d run away together), in order to join his family. Sully never holds it against him, but understands and lets Sam go. In the present tense, Sam and Dean essentially travel into the Drop Dead Fred World (and do a much better job with imaginary friends than that movie did). But there’s something more profound to this episode, and that’s the antagonist, who is connected to Sully. Somewhere in Sully’s past, there was a tragic accident that he is blamed for. In the end, things get resolved to a very heartwarming and even emotional level. And inside my head I apologized for any bad thing I ever thought or said about Nate Torrence. I’m sure somewhere Sully is forgiving me.
7. “A Very Supernatural Christmas” (S3 E8)
This has become as classic to me, and as must-watch-during-the-holidays as “A Charlie Brown Christmas”. It’s a decent MOTW episode, but it also has heart. It’s the episode Sam gives Dean the famous amulet necklace.
It revolves around a “killer Santa” (a Krampus reference!) that turns out to be a pagan god that Sam & Dean have to stop. Throughout the episode, we get flashbacks to their childhood on a Christmas Eve in which Sam waits for his father, and he never comes. It’s sort of a parallel for when kids find out Santa isn’t real--in this case, it’s his dad not coming through for him and being there for him (something Sam struggles with throughout the show). The surprise Christmas Sam has for Dean is a heartwarming touch, and it ends with a really nice moment the two can share together--a real Christmas. Of course, the backdrop to this is that it might be Dean’s last Christmas since he is on the back end of his Demon Deal that gave him only one year to live. Still, for this little Hallmark moment, we can enjoy the two of them enjoying Christmas.
6. “After School Special” (S4 E13)
I want to make a special mention of the actor Colin Ford, who plays the young Sam Winchester from a kid into adolescence in various episodes. He was in the previously mentioned “Christmas” episode, and “Just My Imagination”, and here he really shines as Sam as both he and Dean revisit a high school--one of many--that they attended during their nomadic lives. For Sam, it’s a bit nostalgic as he made a friend, and somewhat impressed his teacher. He also fights a bully, one who may be haunting the area again. Sam defended his friend, Barry, who has a tragic end following high school. It didn’t get much better for the bully, Dirk, who Sam learns was himself a troubled kid who had it rough. His family was poor, and he didn’t know how to handle his anger. It showed the side of bullies we often don’t see--we always want to see them get theirs, and rarely get a glimpse into what makes them what they are. Meanwhile, Dean revisiting his past just reveals his inability to really relate to anyone--he just tries to woo girls and skip school. Be a misfit. In the end, it’s Sam who winds up looking like the more mature kid that handled high school better than Dean did. He had a lot of soul searching to do, and wasn’t anywhere near able to do so. It’s a sweet episode, especially with Sam getting to reconnect with his teacher, however briefly. And again, it really sticks out thanks to Colin Ford’s effortless portrayal as Sam--and man if he doesn’t exactly resemble what Sam would’ve looked like at that age.
5. “Changing Channels” (S5 E8)
Whatever your own “Supernatural” list is, if this episode isn’t in your Top 5, you need to rethink your list. This has to be one of the most consistently funny hours of TV of all time. Throwing Sam and Dean into commercials, medical drama and CSI schlock, and a Japanese gameshow, is a real blast. And, featuring one of my favorite “villains” (who later becomes somewhat of a hero), Loki. They have to take it seriously and play it straight…that means digging into the world of “Dr. Sexy M.D.” (which Dean knows more than he should about), Sam admitting he has herpes in an ad, and having to speak Japanese in order to play the game show. Either way, it seems, that Loki the Trickster will keep them trapped. Speaking of which, there’s a pretty serious reveal at the end of this episode that changes the whole tone and makes this episode that much more special. This show has a lot of meta episodes, and a lot more funny episodes than a horror-based show probably should have; but for some reason, these are usually the best episodes. It’s fun to see Sam and Dean have to go through these crazy things while keeping a straight face. And if it weren’t for the hours of hilarious outtakes videos out there, I would’ve really pushed for an outtakes episode. But, speaking of being meta about the show itself…we’ll get to that a little later.
4. “Abandon All Hope (S5 E10)
Talk about a gut punch. This episode has two major deaths that really deal a blow to the psyche. This episode revolves around stopping Lucifer, with the help of everybody’s favorite villain-that-we-love, Crowley. The boys hatch a plan with him to stop Lucifer from continuing the ensuing Apocalypse. But things go south, like they always do, and the mother-daughter hunters Ellen and Jo (one a love interest for Bobby Singer and the other a sister-he-never-had to Dean), wind up in a precarious situation that could mean the end for them. I loved the gang of Bobby, Dean, Sam, Ellen, and Jo; I think you‘d be hard-pressed to find a fan of the show that didn‘t revel in their camaraderie. They gelled nicely. And although we did lose a lot of other great characters through the years (Charlie, Kevin, and of course Bobby himself), we didn’t face losing 2 at one time like we do here. It’s a one-two punch of a mother and a daughter, and a relationship and bond that was extremely strong and loving. It feels so empty after losing them, that the title really hits home. It’s one of their most dramatically effective episodes, because the stakes are at their highest.
3. “The End” (S5 E4)
The 5th season of “Supernatural”, at one point, was going to be the final season. And they certainly made inroads to make sure that was going to happen. The story surrounding the season was the Apocalypse, as mentioned in my #4, and by all accounts, it was going down. And it was going to be real explosive, and devastating. At this point in the season, Dean still believes that there’s “another way” (to Sam & Dean, this phrase is their calling card), without being involved with the Angels, who want Dean to be Michael’s vessel. Sam is prophesized to be Lucifer’s vessel. So, Dean tries to defect; Zachariah, the Angel (played by the sniveling prick in “Ghostbusters II”, Kurt Fuller) sends Dean 5 years into the future, at the specific date that Dean and Sam “fight” as Michael and Lucifer. Dean finds himself with another pack, also lead by Dean (Future Dean), who has lost hope because…Sam is now Lucifer after all. He tells Our Time Dean that he tried everything, and thought he could beat it, and every time…it came to this. There’s nothing anyone can do but watch it happen. This episode contains some laughs as well as real dramatic tension, especially as seeing Lucifer possessing Sam, and killing Future Dean right in front of Present Day Dean’s face. The biggest laughs come from Future Castiel, who has abandoned being an Angel and lives as a hedonistic hippie, doing drugs and having orgy sex. It’s so against-type of Castiel’s character, it’s a legendary moment in the canon. And I’m sure actor Misha Collins got to have a lot of fun doing it.
2. “The French Mistake” (S6 E15)
By this point, I have to mention that one of the best writers of the show was Ben Edlund. As just a small piece of evidence, this episode, plus the two previous on this list, are all written by him. He is most famously known for creating every iteration of “The Tick”, and shows his comedic chops as well as his depth as a dramatic writer. Here, though, is probably his masterpiece. “The French Mistake” is the episode I think any “Supernatural” fan might say is their favorite. It’s the one that puts Sam and Dean…playing Jared Padalecki and Jensen Ackles, in an alternate universe, in which they hate each other and put on this show called “Supernatural”…and their director’s name…is Bobby Singer (in reality, it’s Robert Singer, but it’s made to make a joke obviously). Sam and Dean are thrown into this universe by Balthazar to protect them against Raphael, who is coming after them. They have to learn how to act as Jensen Ackles and Jared Padalecki, because Sam and Dean are just characters. Like “Purple Rose of Cairo”, the characters play the actors of the characters. Jared is married to Sam’s Ruby (which is true in real life as well), to the dismay of Dean. But they’re both pretty wealthy. The bad news is, they can’t act. So watching them push through a scene is hilarious, and brings out their comic chops (which sometimes don’t get enough credit). Also a kudos to Misha Collins, who plays himself as an obsessive social media magnet, calling his fans “Misha Migos”. It’s an all-around classic, and it’s probably on most people’s Top 10 Lists as #1...but I’ve got another favorite, that came way later in the show but it defines it for me perfectly.
1. “Scoobynatural” (S13 E16)
In some ways, “Supernatural” is “Scooby Doo”. And there have been little jokes here and there about that. Well, here we get the full Scooby treatment with an episode nearly entirely animated in the style of a “Scooby Doo” episode. Dean buys a TV from a pawn shop and sets it up, only to get sucked into the TV itself, while watching the show. Sam joins him, followed by Castiel later. Dean is a total Scooby fan boy so when he realizes he’s in a cartoon, he’s loving it. Sam is less pleased, but plays along. The Scooby gang is perfectly voiced, and their characters are extremely true to the original show. Of course they get caught up in a mystery that involves a ghost and an old house. But that’s not all--there might be a real ghost, even though Velma keeps trying to chide everybody that ghosts don’t exist. One of the funnier running jokes is also Velma trying not to show how attracted to Sam she is. There are some great gags like Dean showing Sam how many sandwiches he can fit into his mouth, and Castiel being teamed up with Shaggy and Scooby. It’s also fun to watch Dean try to put the moves on Daphne, who is completely oblivious to any kind of sexual tension. I think the episode accentuates what is so lovable about the show--it can be very cartoonish and animated in its own right, even as live action entertainment. Putting it in the Scooby Doo universe just adds to the fun. It’s parody as well as homage, to both “Supernatural” and “Scooby Doo”. The fact that it pulls this off so well is why it’s my number one favorite episode.
For fifteen years, the show has done it all, and it’s sad to see it go: but it’s not being rushed, or forced out. The writers and actors have been allowed to go at their pace, and that has paid off greatly. Maybe after this finale is over, there might be a shift in my list down the road. But for now, I think this will suffice.
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submitted by Angurce1 to u/Angurce1 [link] [comments]

2020.11.13 00:50 throwmeawayy1132 F29 with hsv-2 rejected repeatedly by wlw

I finally came out this year and have been dating women for a few months now, and though I was really excited in the beginning, it has become one of the most demoralizing experiences of my life.
I'm HSV-2+. I've had it for nearly a decade and have been asymptomatic since my first outbreak. I take Valtrex and will for the rest of my life. The chances of my spreading it are about as low as it gets, and I've never given it to anyone else. The common cold has impacted my physical health more than herpes has. It really isn’t a big deal in the grand scheme of things. If you feel grossed out right now, please do me a favor and read this article.
I didn't think this would be a big problem because I've disclosed to every guy I've been with since my diagnosis before having sex and they've all been okay with it. I would be willing to use any kind of protection the other person wants or to forgo higher-risk contact if it made the other person feel better. None of this matters, no woman I've told has been okay with it. Don't get me wrong, that's their right and I don't begrudge them that, but most of them ghost when I tell them, and I can't tell you how much that pisses me off. While I’ve had the disclosure talk many times and have perfected it, it never really gets easier. I go through the stress of telling them and don't even get the courtesy of an "I'm sorry, I'm just not comfortable with that" most of the time. I really liked this woman I was seeing, so I told her either on the fifth or sixth date when things looked like they were moving in the more physical direction. She refused to touch me for the rest of the night (wouldn't hold my hand or kiss me goodnight) and then ghosted. There have been additional rejections since then.
I feel disgusting and unlovable. I am finally out and trying to be happy with myself, but it's just been met with disdain and repulsion from other queer women. I am outwardly very positive in my interactions with every new person, but in the back of my mind I just feel dread. I’ve been talking to a woman who seems to be perfect for me, but knowing that she is probably going to reject me is killing me. When I dated men, I never had trouble getting a date. I originally thought that was because of my positive attributes (smart, pretty attractive, funny, compassionate, generous, have my shit together), but this experience leads me to believe that none of that mattered, and it was just that men will put their dicks in anything that will hold still long enough. The fact that I made a mistake before I was even old enough to buy a drink and now carry a virus that might cause a minor skin condition that I have a <1% chance of passing on overshadows everything good that I bring to the table. Compounding this with the fact that most women stop responding after 3-4 messages on a dating app for unknown reasons makes it hard to keep trying.
Before anyone asks, yes, I have an account on Positive Singles. There aren’t many wlw on that site in my area and the one I was interested in only wants femmes. It also doesn’t seem fair that the people with the totally inconsequential skin condition have to be exiled to their own dating site.
TL;DR I have herpes, no woman wants me, the future feels hopeless.
submitted by throwmeawayy1132 to actuallesbians [link] [comments]

2020.11.09 22:42 thepositiveanon My HSV-2 is NOT a goddamn Downgrade Of My Personal Worth

Hey! Rant time. Not looking for advice, just shouting into the world because this is the type of post I'd want to see if it were me several months ago considering the lifestyle. You know how it is, throwaway after lurking etc. Anyway! I've recently joined the NYC bowl via SA after a lot of research. And I figured I might as well give my experience after seeing an HSV-2 post yesterday and an atrocious conversation last night, I'd been simmering on this frustration and figured I might as well pull the trigger.
Disclosure that I'm not trying this as a primary occupation, I have some small remote self-employed gigs and have been in a no-rent studio situation with an accepting long-time friend who at least appreciates any hustle. (He half-jokes that he's the real sugar daddy here.) I'd rather just pay for some education for a new career path down the road, and save for upcoming bills and safety nets, and I discuss as much on my profile.
Also, my attractiveness is nonconventional. I'm curvy (not fat but certainly not slim), mixed-ethnicity, mentioned an interest in coding, and discuss some more frankly non-feminine hobbies. So in vanilla dating I do draw a lot of attention, and I figured I might as well give it a go on SA. I don't mind getting turned away for being an oddball! Again, this isn't an occupation for me. I just want to meet interesting people and think the bowl presents a good set of opportunities or me.
Now, as per the title, herpes comes into play. I disclose at the end of my profile that I have HSV-2, which as you probably know if you're here is genital herpes. I've had it for a while, and I'm on suppressive meds, and I say as much.
I'm not offended if someone passes for that (or any) reason! Maybe sad, but it's usual by now and even expected on a site like SA (or even vanilla sites). And I'm sure I get a lot less messages back than I would if I didn't mention it. Look, honestly, SDs? If this is how you take care of yourself, go for it. As far as I'm aware I haven't transmitted it yet (knock on wood), but this shit sucks and I'd only wish it upon two hands' of fingers worth of people.
Good news is, I've had some people express interest anyway! Some have thanked me for the honesty and asked further - I sense it's a green flag for authenticity. I've also talked to a lot of people who are interested in that facet of myself on its own. (Some dudes really want to risk it raw! It's wild! I admire the audacity!) And many aren't interested in things that involve that risk anyway.
But I've noticed a pattern, and it's that people seem to think less of my time and presence. In part, it could be because I'm sort of in the middle tier in the NYC bowl regarding acceptable attractiveness, so those are the types of people I'm attracting from the get-go. But I've gotten a few people who want to do less than straight sex and think that entitles them to think less of my time and capacity among my other points of value. I followed through on one such arrangement along those specific terms, and thank god there was chemistry and it worked out as planned, but I feel like had I done that with anyone more exhausting or less compatible, I would have kicked myself even harder. And I'm getting so much worse than that experience over messaging, it stresses me out thinking about it.
Again, is it the herpes alone? No, I don't think so. I'm assuming I'm weird for the bowl, and some "SDs" suck in general and, despite arguing otherwise, see the girls on this site as dollar-store dolls on shelves. Even in NYC! But I don't think people would think they're entitled to a bargaining chip if not for the herpes. I ignored my gut feeling on that perspective for a minute, but my gut feeling always turns out to be right.
Look, I'm as human as any other SB, my time is worth more than money but you can at least pretend it's worth being a little spoiled over. At least help me get a Codecademy annual membership or something.
And goddamn, these people don't know my oral skills are nearly borrowed from a goddess as a result of me coping with my condition. How's that Ariana Grande song go?
Anyway, I'm in contact with some other great POTs pending first dates and M&Gs that aren't raising red flags on a constant basis, but there are some real sleazeballs of varying degrees out there. I'm not expecting anything to change from this rant, just needed to get it all down on paper (or, uh, Reddit I guess) and read it back to myself and put it out into the world and maybe affirm it a bit.
(edits for extremely minor typos)
submitted by thepositiveanon to sugarlifestyleforum [link] [comments]

2020.10.30 15:25 DarthEquus Statements regarding circumcision by various medical authorities

🇦🇺 Australia & New Zealand 🇳🇿

Australian College of Paediatrics

"The possibility that routine circumcision may contravene human rights has been raised because circumcision is performed on a minor and is without proven medical benefit. Whether these legal concerns are valid will probably only be known if the matter is determined in a court of law .....Neonatal male circumcision has no medical indication. It is a traumatic procedure performed without anaesthesia to remove a normal and healthy prepuce."

Australian Medical Association

"The Australian College of Paediatrics should continue to discourage the practice of circumcision in newborns."

Royal Australian College of Physicians

"After reviewing the currently available evidence, the RACP believes that the frequency of diseases modifiable by circumcision, the level of protection offered by circumcision and the complication rates of circumcision do not warrant routine infant circumcision in Australia and New Zealand."

Royal Australasian College of Physicians

"Ethical and human rights concerns have been raised regarding elective infant male circumcision because it is recognized that the foreskin has a functional role, the operation is non-therapeutic and the infant is unable to consent. After reviewing the currently available evidence, the RACP believes that the frequency of diseases modifiable by circumcision, the level of protection offered by circumcision and the complication rates of circumcision do not warrant routine infant circumcision in Australia and New Zealand.
“The potential harms include contravention of individual rights, loss of choice, loss of function, procedural and psychological complications. . . . A boy circumcised as an infant may deeply resent this when he grows older; he may want what he cannot have – not to have been circumcised. . . . The option of leaving circumcision until later, when the boy is old enough to make a decision for himself does need to be raised with parents and considered. . . . The ethical merit of this option is that it seeks to respect the child’s physical integrity, and capacity for autonomy by leaving the options open for him to make his own autonomous choice in the future.”

🇧🇪 Belgium 🇧🇪

Belgium Advisory Committee on Bioethics

"In the absence of a medical indication, this intervention undermines personal physical integrity, and it is irreversible as interventions which aim to reconstruct the foreskin do not restore the original situation.
"Given the age of the baby or young child, he cannot give his opinion and his informed consent cannot be sought. It cannot be assumed that a child, and certainly a baby, would consent. An adolescent of 14 years old can be subjected to such social and familial pressure that it cannot be reasonably assumed that his consent has been proven.
"The best way forward would be to strive for a symbolic practice, in which physical integrity would be respected (in other words, no cutting of the flesh). In this way, all religious sensitivities would be respected, without transgressing anyone’s physical integrity."

🇨🇦 Canada 🇨🇦

Canadian Pediatric Society

"Neonatal circumcision is a contentious issue in Canada. The procedure often raises ethical and legal considerations, in part because it has lifelong consequences and is performed on a child who cannot give consent. Infants need a substitute decision maker – usually their parents – to act in their best interests. Yet the authority of substitute decision makers is not absolute. In most jurisdictions, authority is limited only to interventions deemed to be medically necessary. In cases in which medical necessity is not established or a proposed treatment is based on personal preference, interventions should be deferred until the individual concerned is able to make their own choices."

College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia

"Under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, an infant has rights that include security of person, life, freedom and bodily integrity. Routine infant male circumcision is an unnecessary and irreversible procedure. Therefore, many consider it to be 'unwarranted mutilating surgery.'
"Many adult men are increasingly concerned about whether their parents had the right to give consent for infant male circumcision. They claim that an infant’s rights should take priority over any parental rights to make such a decision. This procedure should be delayed to a later date when the child can make his own informed decision. Parental preference alone does not justify a non‐therapeutic procedure.... Advise parents that the current medical consensus is that routine infant male circumcision is not a recommended procedure; it is non‐therapeutic and has no medical prophylactic basis; current evidence indicates that previously‐thought prophylactic public health benefits do not out‐weigh the potential risks..... Routine infant male circumcision does cause pain and permanent loss of healthy tissue."

College of Physicians and Surgeons of Saskatchewan

"While the College's primary mandate is public protection, we do encourage physicians to give careful thought to the downstream risks they may incur by taking an inappropriately casual approach to infant male circumcision driven exclusively by parental preference without valid medical indication for the procedure."

🇩🇰 Denmark 🇩🇰

The Danish Medical Association (Lægeforeningen)

"We are fundamentally opposed to male circumcision unless there is a medical reason such as phimosis for carrying out the operation. It's very intrusive that adults may decide for a newborn to undergo a surgical procedure that is not medically justified and it's effect is lifelong. When a boy reaches the age of consent, he may then decide, but until then the requirements of the individual's right to self-determination prevail."

Danish Society for Anaesthesiology and Intensive-care Medicine

"We cannot vouch for male circumcision under local anesthesia. There is a risk of insufficient assessment and we would never perform medically indicated penile surgery under local anesthesia. Children have the same right as adults to up-to-date pain relief before, during, and after surgery. That children rarely have the language to express pain, we see as an aggravating circumstance.
"We recommend that non-medically indicated interventions be postponed until the age of 18 years in which the patient himself is able to give consent.
"Circumcision is a surgical procedure with a risk of complications both related to the operation and the anesthetic."

🇪🇺 European Union 🇪🇺

Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly

Representing 47 countries
"One category [of children’s harm] is particulary worrisome, namely violations of the physical integrity of children which supporters tend to present as beneficial to the children themselves despite evidently negative life-long consequences in many cases: female genital mutilation, the circumcision of young boys for religious reasons, medical interventions during the early childhood of intersex children as well as the submission to or coercion of children into piercings, tattoos or plastic surgery. The Parliamentary Assembly should urge member States to promote further awareness in their societies of the potential risks for children’s physical and mental health of the above-mentioned procedures. Member States should take legislative and policy measures that help reinforce child protection in this context by giving primary consideration to the best interest of the child.”

🇫🇮 Finland 🇫🇮

Finnish Association of Pediatric Surgeons (Sulamaa Society)

"Let the boys decide for themselves the circumcision.
"Circumcision of boys is an irreversible and painful procedure that can also cause serious complications. For this reason, circumcision for a person who is unable to consent for non-medical reasons violates fundamental medical ethical principles.
"There are no health grounds for non-medical circumcision of boys in the Nordic countries. Factors that may support circumcision of adult men are very irrelevant to young children in the Nordic countries. Boys can later take a stand on the measure themselves when they are able to give their consent, given their age and level of development. As ombudsmen for children and pediatric medical professionals, we believe that circumcision of a child who is unable to consent without medical justification is contrary to Articles 12 and 24 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. According to Article 12, the child has the right to express his or her views on matters concerning him or her."

Finnish Medical Association

"The parents requesting ritual circumcision of the boy should be discussed with giving up the procedure or postponing it to a time when the boy is able to decide for himself.
"Circumcision always exposes the patient to complications. Taken in a preventive sense, the measure will not bring any health benefits other than the possible prevention of HIV in developing countries. Thus, it is comparable to female circumcision. Because proper consent cannot be obtained from a small son, both ethically and legally, circumcision violates an individual’s freedom and personal integrity. As such, the procedure is contrary to medical ethics."

Finnish Central Union for Child Welfare

"The Central Union for Child Welfare considers that circumcision of boys that violates the personal integrity of the boys is not acceptable unless it is done for medical reasons to treat an illness. The basis for the measures of a society must be an unconditional respect for the bodily integrity of an under-aged person.
"Circumcision intervenes in the sexual integrity of a male child causing a permanent change in organisms and has consequences pertaining to both health and quality of life.
"The circumcision of girls is rightly considered as inhuman mutilation of the genitals and is punished abuse. Also boys must be guaranteed a similar protection by law."

🇩🇪 Germany 🇩🇪

German Pediatric Association

"Initially, it should be observed that there is no reason from a medical point of view to remove an intact foreskin from underage boys or boys unable to give consent. . . . The male foreskin is a part of the skin of the organ and fulfills important functions that protect the very sensitive glans. . . . Circumcision can lead to erectile dysfunction [and] . . . considerable limitations to sex life and cause psychological stresses. . . . Boys have, according to our sense of justice, the same basic constitutional legal rights to physical integrity as girls, they must not be disadvantaged due to their sex.”

🇬🇧 Great Britain 🇬🇧

Royal College of Surgeons of England

"The one absolute indication for circumcision is scarring of the opening of the foreskin making it non- retractable (pathological phimosis). This is unusual before five years of age. ...The parents and, when competent, the child, must be made fully aware of the implications of this operation as it is a non-reversible procedure."

British Medical Association

"It is now widely accepted, including by the BMA, that this surgical procedure has medical and psychological risks. .... very similar arguments are also used to try and justify very harmful cultural procedures, such as female genital mutilation or ritual scarification. Furthermore, the harm of denying a person the opportunity to choose not to be circumcised must also be taken into account, together with the damage that can be done to the individual’s relationship with his parents and the medical profession if he feels harmed by the procedure. .... parental preference alone is not sufficient justification for performing a surgical procedure on a child. .... The BMA considers that the evidence concerning health benefit from non-therapeutic circumcision is insufficient for this alone to be a justification for doing it."

🇮🇸 Iceland 🇮🇸

Icelandic Medical Association

"It's the general opinion of the Icelandic Medical Association (IMA) that unnecessary medical procedures should not be performed on children, and in that regards the IMA references the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. The circumcision of boys, that has no medical purpose, but can lead to serious complications qualifies as such a procedure."

🇳🇱 The Netherlands 🇳🇱

Royal Dutch Medical Association

“There is no convincing evidence that circumcision is useful or necessary in terms of prevention or hygiene. Partly in light of the complications which can arise during or after circumcision, circumcision is not justifiable except on medical/therapeutic grounds. . . . Contrary to what is often thought, circumcision entails the risk of medical and psychological complications. . . . Non-therapeutic circumcision of male minors is contrary to the rule that minors may only be exposed to medical treatments if illness or abnormalities are present. . . . Non-therapeutic circumcision of male minors conflicts with the child’s right to autonomy and physical integrity. . . . Complications in the area of sexuality have also been reported as have extreme pain experiences in newborns causing behavioral changes which are still apparent years later. Similarly, the high social costs of circumcision as a result of complications have been cited. . . . The foreskin is a complex, erotogenic structure that plays an important role in the mechanical function of the penis during sexual acts, such as penetrative intercourse and masturbation. The many attempts by men to restore their foreskins by mechanical or surgical means also contradict the idea that the foreskin is a useless part of the body.”
This policy has been endorsed by several other Dutch organizations:

🇮🇸🇬🇱🇫🇴 Nordic Countries 🇳🇴🇪🇪🇦🇽

The Nordic Association of Clinical Sexology

Representing Danish, Estonian, Finnish, Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish clinical sexologists
"The penile foreskin is a natural and integral part of the normal male genitalia. The foreskin has a number of important protective and sexual functions. It protects the penile glans against trauma and contributes to the natural functioning of the penis during sexual activity. Ancient historic accounts and recent scientific evidence leave little doubt that during sexual activity the foreskin is a functional and highly sensitive, erogenous structure, capable of providing pleasure to its owner and his potential partners.
"As clinical sexologists, we are concerned about the human rights aspects associated with the practice of non-therapeutic circumcision of young boys. To cut off the penile foreskin in a boy with normal, healthy genitalia deprives him of his right to grow up and make his own informed decision. Unless there are compelling medical reasons to operate before a boy reaches an age and a level of maturity at which he is capable of providing informed consent, the decision to alter the appearance, sensitivity and functionality of the penis should be left to its owner, thus upholding his fundamental rights to protection and bodily integrity.
"Every person's right to bodily integrity goes hand in hand with his or her sexual autonomy."

Nordic Ombudsmen for Children and Pediatric Experts

Representing Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, and Greenland
"Circumcision, performed without a medical indication, on a person who is incapable of giving consent, violates fundamental medical-ethical principles, not least because the procedure is irreversible, painful, and may cause serious complications. There are no health-related reasons for circumcising young boys in the Nordic countries. Circumstances that may make circumcision advantageous for adult men are of little relevance to young boys in the Nordic countries, and on these matters the boys will have the opportunity to decide for themselves when they reach the age and maturity required to give consent."

🇳🇴 Norway 🇳🇴

Norwegian Nursing Association

"[The Norsk Sykepleierforbund opposes] exposing healthy children to an irreversible, painful and risky intervention, without their own consent. ...There is no medical indication for the procedure. In our view, it is problematic to establish different legal standards depending on gender. Circumcision / genital mutilation of women is criminalized, while circumcision of boys is proposed institutionalized through the public health system.”

Norwegian Council for Medical Ethics

"Among other things, the council says that ritual circumcision of boys has no established medical benefit . . . . circumcision of boys is not consistent with important principles of medical ethics . . . it is an important factor that the child cannot give consent."

🇿🇦 South Africa 🇿🇦

South African Medical Association

"The Committee stated that it was unethical and illegal to perform circumcision on infant boys in this instance. In particular, the Committee expressed serious concern that not enough scientifically-based evidence was available to confirm that circumcisions prevented HIV contraction and that the public at large was influenced by incorrect and misrepresented information. The Committee reiterated its view that it did not support circumcision to prevent HIV transmission."

🇸🇮 Slovenia 🇸🇮

Slovenian Human Rights Ombudsman

"However, if the circumcision of the child is not medically indicated, but is only the result of the belief of his parents (religious or otherwise), such an intervention has no legal basis. It does not even matter whether the child explicitly opposed the procedure. Interference with the physical integrity of a child solely because of the wishes of his or her legal representatives or guardians therefore constitutes an inadmissible interference with his or her body and, in our opinion, also has signs of criminal conduct."

🇸🇪 Sweden 🇸🇪

Swedish Pediatric Society

"There is no medical reason to circumcise little boys; the procedure is painful, irreversible and can cause complications, according to Sweden's children's ombudsman and representatives for several healthcare organizations."
"It was emphasized that the aim should, as far as possible, be for the child / young man himself to be allowed to take a stand on circumcision.

The ombudsman Fredrik Malmberg, together with representatives from the Swedish Society of Medicine (SLS), the Swedish Society of Health Professionals (Vårdförbundet), the Swedish Paediatric Society (BLF), and the Swedish Association of Pediatric Surgeons (SLF), argues that:

"Swedish law requires that the child's will be taken into account wherever possible. Circumcision is a procedure which is typically carried out at a very young age and it is this issue of consent which is paramount, they argue. "We consider circumcision of boys without the child's consent to be in contravention of article 12 of UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) which gives children the right to have an opinion in matters which concern them." They furthermore argue for a change in Swedish legislation in order to meet the human rights of the child and medical ethics."

🇺🇸 United States 🇺🇸

American Academy of Pediatrics

The 2012 Policy Statement is often misquoted as a recommendation for circumcision. The AAP does not, nor has ever, recommended circumcision.
"Evaluation of current evidence indicates that the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks . . . . Although health benefits are not great enough to recommend routine circumcision for all male newborns, the benefits of circumcision are sufficient to justify access to this procedure for families choosing it and to warrant third-party payment for circumcision of male newborns."
The AAP's 2012 Infant Circumcision Policy was formally rejected by leading pediatric doctors in Austria, Britain, Denmark, England, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Sweden, and the Netherlands and by senior pediatricians in Canada, the Czech Republic, France, and Poland. Their letter written in response to the AAP's task force opinion, Cultural Bias in the AAP’s 2012 Technical Report and Policy Statement on Male Circumcision stated:
"Seen from the outside, cultural bias reflecting the normality of nontherapeutic male circumcision in the United States seems obvious, and the [AAP's 2012] report’s conclusions [claiming "benefits" of non-therapeutic circumcision justify it being covered by insurance] are different from those reached by physicians in other parts of the Western world, including Europe, Canada, and Australia. In this commentary, a different view is presented by non–US-based physicians and representatives of general medical associations and societies for pediatrics, pediatric surgery, and pediatric urology in Northern Europe. To these authors, only one of the arguments put forward by the American Academy of Pediatrics has some theoretical relevance in relation to infant male circumcision; namely, the possible protection against urinary tract infections in infant boys, which can easily be treated with antibiotics without tissue loss. The other claimed health benefits, including protection against HIV/AIDS, genital herpes, genital warts, and penile cancer, are questionable, weak, and likely to have little public health relevance in a Western context, and they do not represent compelling reasons for surgery before boys are old enough to decide for themselves.
"There is growing consensus among physicians, including those in the United States, that physicians should discourage parents from circumcising their healthy infant boys because nontherapeutic circumcision of underage boys in Western societies has no compelling health benefits, causes postoperative pain, can have serious long-term consequences, constitutes a violation of the United Nations’ Declaration of the Rights of the Child, and conflicts with the Hippocratic oath: primum non nocere: First, do no harm."
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2020.10.21 20:39 Floridalooking trying to date? private fb groups?

So I've tried the pay to date sites that are pretty much how all the herpes sites are based on I'm not a big fan of them. Ive heard of some private Facebook groups too for dating ? I'm located in Central Florida I'm a 27 year old male. Trying to find someone to grow old with! If you know of any groups or better options for dating or meeting others with herpes please reach out to me! I'm starting to get pretty bummed! I definitely appreciate any helpful advice :)
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2020.10.17 06:00 AutoModerator Happy Cakeday, r/PositiveDating! Today you're 3

Let's look back at some memorable moments and interesting insights from last year.
Your top 10 posts:
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2020.09.29 03:16 maxypaxy5 Am I the wrong one?

Let me start out by saying Im currently 23 and my husband 48 and we work together. We have been together since 2018 and married for a little over a year. When we first started dating, I saw flirty texts and pics from his ex wife who is also his baby mama. When I confronted him he said she was just too comfortable and thought it was ok for her to send stuff like that and told her to stop. We moved on from that. Everything was going good but we had to sacrifice our plans so he could have the kids the days he wasn’t supposed to so she could go do things and party. I kept all that annoyance in but this lady was always somehow there like if we were on vacation she was calling him for something that had nothing to do with the kids and of course he dropped whatever he was doing to answer her. Again I kept the feelings I had about that stuff inside. I felt like I was sharing my husband. September 2019 we came back from my birthday trip and he was called into work for an emergency. While he was at work something told me to check his old phone that he kept in his backpack. When I went to his Instagram that was still signed in I found a bunch of messages between him and another woman and he had her numbers saved in his phone as John. When I confronted him about it he said she was an ex and she hacked his ig and made up all those messages because she was mad at how he ended it with her and wanted to sabotage his relationship. I believed him because he swore on his kids life but a part of me didn’t believe him. I used to see I love you texts on his phone under a work contact and he said it must have been a mistake and would call and ask the person if I didn’t believe him but I said it was ok he didn’t need to. I now know those texts were from that woman. I decided to text her myself and she told me to the truth and sent picture proof. He was cheating on me 3 months into our relationship up until the time I found out and he met her on a dating site and they would meet up and have sex and go on dates while he barely took me on any dates. He did things with her that we made plans to do together and never did. I was so afraid of losing him because he made me feel so loved and cared for before that and I thought we could work through the cheating. His excuse for cheating was that he was afraid I was eventually going to leave him because of the age gap and he always sabotaged anything good in his life. He promised me he would change if i gave him another chance. And I did. A month later, I found out he was hiding a huge secret from me. Aside from the 3 kids I knew about he had 4 more that I had no idea about. He made me feel like I was the wrong one for reacting the way I did. I forgave him and gave him another chance. About 4 months ago, i was going through his phone and saw that he still had the phone number of the woman he cheated on me with saved in his phone but this time it wasn’t under a fake name, it was under her real name. Now he knows how much he broke me when he cheated and he still had her number saved. His excuse was she had texted him “hi” back in December when we were on a break and he saved her number so he would know it was her if she ever tried to contacted him and he would know not to reply. I forgot to mention that during our break, I found out he gave me herpes from this woman. During this time, i also found out he had followed an old ex of his on ig and kept it from me. He claims it was no big deal and he was just curious and unfollowed her after 3 days because he realized it was wrong. I said if it was no big deal then why keep it from me? I know he wouldn’t like it if I hid something like that. I lost any trust I had in him. Gone. We work together so I see him every day and we hang out here and there because its so hard to let him go because he was my best friend. He says im not giving him a chance to show me he’s changed. He refers to everything he’s done as “the past”. He says im stuck going in circles and I will never move on and be happy because I’m going to be stuck in the same place instead of us moving on and working on our marriage. Every time we have a conversation about our relationship he finds a way to turn everything on me and make me feel like our relationship is where it is because of me and me not wanting to give him a chance to show me he’s different. How can I be with someone I don’t trust? Am i the one in the wrong? I don’t want to lose him but I don’t want to be with someone I don’t trust my whole life or be worried about what’s going on behind my back.
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2020.09.28 14:48 Aram_Iam Both Have Herpes?

Is anyone in a relationship where you both have HSV? I am 28f and I have gHSV1. I recently wanted to start dating then realized I have to disclose to these guys... How do you meet some one who has it already? Is there a dating site for herpes positive? What’s it like dating someone who has it? I disclosed it to one guy and he was ok with it. But tbh I don’t think we are going to work out and I don’t want to date around and disclose to guys if I don’t need to...
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2020.09.27 06:23 Bonga777 herpes dating site

herpes dating site submitted by Bonga777 to u/Bonga777 [link] [comments]

2020.09.23 02:33 SkyAnimal For fun, I compiled a Timeline of Archaeological, Genetic, and Geologic data. I think this is the audience that would appreciate it. (My observations in the comment section.)

A timeline of Human Development, using archaeological, genetic, and geologic data:
Earth's orbit experiences a Orbital Eccentricity, 100,000 year cycle orbit and inclination variation, going from circular to elliptical, the hemispheres experience more or less sun or exposure to the sun for extended periods, causing ice ages. Scientists estimate we are near the minimum, a 6% change in solar energy. At peak, the earth experiences a change of 30%.
44 million y a - Hominid ancestors acquire Herpes virus.
10 million y a - Primate ancestors develop genes to digest alcohol.
6 million years ago - Primate ancestors split from Chimpanzee/Bonobo line (15 million DNA mutations have occurred since then; each person born today has 100 mutations distinct to them, most don’t survive.)
5.3 m y a - Mediterranean Sea experiences the Messinian Salinity Crisis, for 600,000 years the Straight of Gibraltar closed off, causing the Mediterranean to shrink down to two inland seas with Italy and Greece separating them. Ends in the Zanclean Flood, a river of Atlantic sea water flows thru Gibraltar and fills the Mediterranean in 2 years.
5 m y a - Arabian-African continent reconnects with Asia.
4 - 3 m y a - Hominid ancestors acquire pubic lice from Gorillas (genetic evidence).
3.6 - 2.58 m y a - Considered the Neogene Period.
3.3 m y a - Stone tools found in Kenya and Ethiopia.
3-1.4 m y a - Chimpanzee Herpes oral virus mutates into Hominid genital virus, cross species transmission (Homo Habilis or Paranthropus Boisei).
2.6 m y a - Mode One Stone Tools found in Ethiopia, would subsequently spread. Flourished to 1.7 million y a in southern and eastern Africa. Palaeolithic (Old Stone Age) Era (2.6 m y a till end of last Ice Age, 11,000 y a). Subdivided into the Early- or Lower Palaeolithic (c. 2,6 million years ago - c. 250,000 years ago); the Middle Palaeolithic (c. 250,000 years ago - c. 30,000 years ago); and the Late- or Upper Palaeolithic (c. 50,000/40,000 - c. 10,000 years ago
2.58 million - 11,700 years ago - Considered the start of the Quaternary Period, and covers the Pleistocene.
2 m years ago - Earliest Hominids start eating meat.
1.89 m y a - Earliest evidence of Homo Erectus (first to leave Africa and spread across Asia).
1.8 m years ago - Mode One Stone Tools found on Java.
1.7 m years ago - Mode Two Stone Tools (slicing, butchering, evidence of drilling tools) appear in Kenya and southern Africa.
1.6 m years ago - Mode One Stone Tools found in northern China.
1.6 - 1.5 m y a - Africa, Turkana Boy dies, likely from a tooth cavity infection. He was either 8 or 11-12 years old and 61 inches tall. Brain 880 ccm.
1.5 m y a - Kenya, possible start of Hominids using fire to cook food. (increase in caloric intake, which would lead to evolution; however, Paranthropus Boisei is the local species, brain 500-550 ccm, 54 inches tall)
1 million years ago - Likely split between ancestor of Homo Sapiens and proto-Neanderthal-Denisovan species. (Mitochondrial DNA evidence.) South Africa, evidence of fire use for cooking.
1 m - 700,000 y a - Java, Java Man dies, brain 900 ccm. 5' 8" tall.
820,000 - 580,000 y a - Durum Wheat develops out of natural hybridization with Einkorn Wheat (genetic analysis).
800,000? y a - Low world temperatures recorded. Height of Ice Age?
790,000 y a - Levant, oldest Fire hearths found. (Homo Heidelbergensis, 1,250 ccm brain, 69 in tall)
740,000? y a - Height of Ice Age?
640,000? y a - Height of Ice Age.
550,000? y a - Height of Ice Age?
540,000 - 430,000 y a - Art: Sea shell formed into decoration by Homo Erectus. (Could indicate when sea shells began to be used as whistles and horns.)
530,000? y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, high CO2 content in the atmosphere, 524-474,000).
500,000 y a - South Africa, evidence of Spears. (Would become common 300,000 years ago.)
450,000 y a - Earliest evidence of Neanderthal.
450,000 y a - Global temperatures had dropped, stayed that way for thousands of years.
430,000 - 230,000 y a - Durum Wheat cross-breeds with wild Goat Grass (genetic analysis).
400,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 424-374,000).
400,000 y a - Germany, oldest Spears found. France (Terra Amata), possible evidence of manmade shelter using prepared wood.
360,000? y a - Height of Ice Age.
310,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 337-300,000).
300,000 y a - Kenya, oldest evidence of Ochre rocks being used for pigment.
300,000-200,000 y a - Origin of Male Y-Chromosome that all current males are descended from. (40% of males do not reproduce.)
270,000? y a - Height of Ice Age.
240,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 242–230,000).
200,000 y a - France, evidence of Neanderthals fishing. "Mitochondrial Eve," source of all Human Haplo-groups that everyone is descended from, existed at this time. Scientists think that language with well formed, meaningful sentences was achieved (migration patterns, anatomy, tool making; some argue that truly modern language is 50,000 years old).
194,000-135,000 y a - Penultimate Glacial Period.
190,000 y a - Early evidence of Denisovans. (At least three interbreeding events would occur with Homo Sapiens. EPAS1 gene, hemoglobin concentration, Tibetan plateau.)
190,000-50,000 y a - Flores Island, evidence of tool use by the Human Hobbit.
170,000 - 80,000 y a - Body Lice evolve (genetic evidence, feed on human skin, live in clothing; evidence of clothing)
140,000 y a - Homo Sapiens found in Europe.
130,000 y a - Evidence of humans in North America. Crete, earliest human settlements found on the island. Art: Neanderthal necklace made of eagle talons. Croatia: Neanderthal teeth show possible dental work.
125,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 130-115,000). Sea levels 4-6 meters (18 feet) higher then today.
110,000-15,000 y a - Last Glacial Period.
100,000-60,000 y a - Flores Island, bone fossil evidence of the Human Hobbit.
100,000 y a - Oldest example of proper human burial. South Africa, Blombos Cave, pigment (paint) creation kit found; possible oldest evidence of abstract art.
75,000 years ago - Likely rise of Hunter Genotype in Homo Sapiens.
75,000 y a - Art: Drilled snail shells found in South African cave.
73,000 y a - South Africa (Blombos Cave), evidence of Red Ochre art on pieces of stone, stone with deliberate lines cut into it possibly representing count marks.
72,000 y a - South Africa, Beads found in cave.
70,000 y a - Mitochondrial DNA suggests this is when the Haplo-group of early humans migrated out of Africa to populate the rest of the world. Earliest evidence of Glue (sticky tree gum, ochre rocks, fat cooked over fire).
70-60,000 y a - Earliest evidence of bone and stone arrowheads, found in South Africa. 64,000?
70,000 - 35,000 BCE - Neanderthal burials in Europe and Middle East.
67,000 BCE - France, burial shows skulls with trepanation (cutting holes to relieve brain pressure), earliest example of surgery.
65,000 y a - First humans settle Australia.
64,000 y a - Spain, oldest evidence found of cave art (Neanderthal hand).
61,000 y a - South Africa, possible evidence of a Sewing Needle.
60,000? y a - Height of Ice Age?
60,000 y a - Evidence of man/Neanderthal using herbal medicine.
55,000 - 40,000 y a - Italy, evidence of Neanderthal using Pine Tree Resin and Beeswax for hafting tools, in cave.
52,000 y a - Last evidence of Denisovans.
52-41,000 y a - France, Neanderthal site, bast (tree inner fiber) yarn found (evidence of basic math and organizational skills for patterns and sets, clothing, nets, tools)
50,000 - 10,000 y a - Mode Four Stone Tools (long blades).
50,000 y a - Austrailia, last evidence of megafauna. Siberia, needle made from bone found with Denisovan cave.
50,000 years ago - End point of development of Gatherer genotype (can survive famine), Teacher (can handle new and different environments, analytical).
45,000 y a - Evidence of Neanderthal and Homo Sapien interbreeding. (Fossil found, DNA tested.)
44,000 y a - Evidence of art found in Indonesia.
44,000-40,000 y a - Europe experiences cold and dry weather, displacing populations.
43-42,000 y a - Germany, oldest musical instruments (flutes) found.
42,000 y a - Australia, skeleton of man suggests Atlatl use, pre-dating earliest evidence; earliest example of cremation found. Spain, small amounts of Natural Gold found in a cave.
40,000 y a - Last evidence of Neanderthal. (Inheritance of "STAT2" gene, immune response. HYAL2 gene, helps skin recover from sunburns.) China, test on body found that ate a lot of fresh water fish.
40,000 - 26,000 y a - Studying toe bones, showed they became smaller and weaker, indicating shoes were worn. Prior to this, shoes were likely bags wrapped around feet to protect from cold.
38,000 BC - First appearance of Mode Five ground stone tools on Japan. (rock was quarried; thin slivers of flint stone, attached to hafts, man is learning the use of a "handle" for tools and "leverage", create adzes, celts, and axes; grinding helps to penetrate trees and was likely discovered when grinding plant matter; found buried with owners; were traded) Lasted till 14,000 BC. (Would not become popular elsewhere until 10,000 BC?) Germany: clay figurine featuring human with lion like appearance, thought to be earliest representation of a deity.
40,000 y a - (Mankind is at the “Forager” level.) Possible example of oldest petroglyphs. Beads found in Lebanon.
35,000 BCE - Europe, earliest examples of "Venus figurines" found buried in graves (some showing they were deliberately broken or stabbed repeatedly); would later spread to rest of Eurasia. Early examples of skulls and long bones showing red ochre, indicating possible relic worship.
35,000 y a - Germany, flute made from a vulture bone found.
31,000 - 27,000 y a - Evidence of Pit Fire (Earthernware) Pottery developing.
30,000-20,000 years ago - Explorer genotype (Ice Age refugees, idiosyncratic, asymmetrical, contrarian mentality)
30-15,000 y a - DNA evidence of Denisovan interbreeding with Homo Sapiens.
30,000 y a - Evidence of starch residue on rocks, indicating where plant matter was pounded and ground. (Would likely be the pre-cursor of developing bread from roots of cattails and ferns. Quern Grinding Stones would spread and gain popularity) Georgia, Flax used as a textile (harvested, dyed, and knotted) found in Dzudzuana Cave. Fertile Crescent, Einkorn wheat harvested in it's wild form. Evidence of man using the Atlatl. Poland: Boomerang carved from mammoth tusk found.
28,000 y a - Europe, oldest evidence of rope.
25,000 - 15,000 BCE - Blood Type A develops in the Fertile Crescent.
27,000 y a - Australia, oldest example of petroglyphs found. Czech Republic, earliest example of "Weaving" of material together to create baskets and basic cloth.
26,000-13,300 y a - Considered "Glacial Maximum", ice sheets extend to the 45th parallel north. (26,500 considered to be maximum glacial reach.)
23,000 - 12,000 y a - Perforated Batons found, made of antler, assumed to be a form of Atlatl that uses a leather strap or string to wrap around the spear and give it a slight spin, arrow or spear thrower (similar to Swiss Arrow). Right and left handed throwers find preference. Most carved with Horses, have one or two holes (one had 8 holes).
23,000 y a - Israel, Ohalo archaeological site, hunter-gatherer society that grew/harvested barley, millet, and various fruits.
21,000-17,000 y a - France, Atlatl's found in caves.
20,000 y a - Height of the Ice Age, sea levels 120 meters (360 feet) lower. Earliest example of a building/house found. Ukraine, Bullroarer (wood on rope that is swung around to create sound over long distance) found.
19,050? - 13,050 y a - Oldest Dryas Period, stadial, abrupt cooling period. Sea levels rose 10-15 m in 500 years.
17,000 BCE - Mesopotamia, Wild Emmer Wheat harvested.
18,000 - 17,500 y a - Siberia, earliest example of a domesticated dog found frozen. Germany, Bow and Arrows found. Early evidence of Darts used.
18,000 y a - Japan, oldest pottery discovered.
15,100 - 14,000 y a - Morocco, earliest example of a cemetery.
15,000 y a - Southern France, cave art depicting possible Musical Bow, Nose Flute; "The Sorcerer," a figure showing human and many animal qualities.
14,500 y a - Oldest example of bread making, Jordan desert.
14,160 - 13,820 y a - Archaeological find: infected tooth partially cleaned out with flint tools.
14,600 - 13,600 y a - "Melt Water Pulse," sea levels rose 16-24 m.
14,000? y a - Older Dryas Period, around 200 year cooling period.
13,500 - 8,200 y a - China, wild Rice domestication event occurs.
15-10,000 BCE - Himalayas, development of Blood Type B.
12,000 - 9000 BCE - Mesolithic Era (Middle Stone Age)
11,050 BCE - Syria, attempts at domesticating Rye.
13,000 y a - Greece, evidence of lentils found. Earliest evidence of Amber used in jewelry. Israel, archaeological evidence of beer like gruel for ceremonial purposes found at Haifa. Likely beginning of Slavery.
13,000 - 12,700 y a - Fertile Crescent, archaeological evidence of man corralling and using pigs.
12,900 - 11,700 y a - The Younger Dryas Period, when temperatures went cold instead of warming from the Last Glacial Maximum. Started when a massive fresh water lake in North America flooded into the Atlantic Ocean.
10,000 BCE - Jericho, considered mankind's first town, is established. Buildings of clay and straw, dead buried under homes. (Would reach 70 dwellings by 94,000 BCE.) Chickpeas domesticated. (Mode Five Ground stone tools become popularly used across the Neolithic?) Earliest evidence of the Bottle Gourd being domesticated and used (Africa and Asia variety). Azerbaijan (Caspian Sea), petroglyphs of reed boats. Starting point of Ocarina type flutes.
11,700 y a - Considered the beginning of the Holocene.
9600 BCE - Southern Levant, earliest use of wild Emmer Wheat.
11,500 - 11,000 y a - "Melt Water Pulse," sea levels rose 28 m.
11,400 y a - Cyrpress, archaeological evidence of pigs (indicating they had been domesticated and brought from the mainland).
9400 - 9200 BCE - Jordan Valley, Fig trees found, indicating earliest agriculture since these trees could not reproduce.
9130 - 7370 BCE - SE Turkey, Gobekli Tepe, oldest known worship location.
9000 BCE - Syria, oldest (Saddle) Quern found. Mesopotamia, Copper first used.
9000 - 3300 BCE - Neolithic Era, roughly. Time period of when man has begun herding, before using bronze.
11,000 - 9,000 y a - Mesopotamia, domestication of Sheep; Rammed Earth construction technique developed.
11,000-4,000 years ago - Warrior genotype (farmers, soldiers, inventors); Nomad genotype (life upon a horse, can handle different environments, good immune system)
11 or 10,000 y a - Last Ice Age ends.
8800 BCE - Emmer Wheat spreads beyond the Levant.
8700 BCE - Iraq, Copper pendant.
8500 BCE - Domestication of Barley. Domestication of peas occurs around this time. Turkey, Beer production found at Gobekli Tepe. Domestication of Cattle from the Aurochs (two separate populations, one in Mesopotamia, the other Pakistan). Oregon, oldest pair of shoes found made from bark twine. Oats possibly start to be harvested, crop mirrors wheat (is like a weed).
10,300 - 8,700 y a - China, Millet harvested.
10,200 - 9,500 y a - Emmer Wheat domesticated(?).
10,000 - 7,000 y a - Archaeological evidence of boats.
8000 BCE (10,000 years ago) - Palestine, archaeological evidence of pastoralism. Pre-Pottery Neolithic people in the Fertile Crescent form perfectly smooth stone vases. Iran, Goat domestication. Believed to be when primitive dairy-cheese making began. Flax cultivation. China, Quern Grinding Stones.
78-5,000 y a - SE Turkey, Einkorn Wheat grown and domesticated.
9,500 y a - Cyprus, earliest evidence of cat domestication. SE Anatolia, cold-working, annealing, smelting, lost wax casting of Copper.
7500 - 5700 BCE - Anatolia, Catal Hoyuk develops as a spiritual center, found many clay figurines and impressions (feminine, phallic, hunting).
7400 BCE - A monolith ends up submerged in the Straight of Sicily.
7000 BCE - Archaeological evidence for pastoralism in Africa. China: evidence of mead (honey, rice, water fermented) in pottery; evidence of musical instruments. India, first archaeological evidence of Dance, cave art; evidence of dentistry. Armenian Highlands, art depictions of Cymbals. Durum Wheat made thru artificial selection in Europe and Near East. Greece, earliest evidence of grain silos. Turkey, Catal Hoyuk, art depiction of a Slinger.
7000 - 6600 BCE - China, domestication of Soy beans.
7000 - 6000 BCE - Turkey, domestication of Bitter Vetch. (Too bitter for human consumption without being boiled several times, has been found to be great for cattle feed.)
6500-3800 BCE - Ubaid Period (Mesopotamian citystates rise, evidence of specialized workers, evidence of taxation)
6500 BCE - Turkey, evidence of lead smelting at Catal Hoyuk. (Wrapping the dead in textiles, too.) China, archaeological evidence of Silk. Kosovo, oldest Ocarina found in Europe.
8,200 - 7,600 y a - Sea levels rise rapidly. Linked to North American great fresh water lake (Agassiz, Ojibway) sudden draining into Atlantic Ocean. 8,400 y a?
6050 BCE - Moldova, evidence of man extracting salt from a natural spring.
8,000 y a - Western Europe, white skin first appears. Iran: earliest evidence of irrigation; man starts choosing sheep for their wooliness, not just meat and skin (2-3,000 years later, would start wearing wool). Georgia, earliest evidence of wine. Spain, cave painting shows people collecting honey from a wild hive, using a container to hold. China, Buckwheat cultivated (near Tibetan plateau). Earliest evidence of the Ard Plow used. Mediterranean, Broad (Fava) Beans, Broccoli. Portugal: Almendres Cromlech, begins, aligned to equinox and solstice, occupied for 2,000 years, would become largest complex in Iberian peninsula, equal to other large complexes in Europe. Anatolia: Obsidian polished into mirrors. Spelt Wheat appears. First Stone hafted Axes.
6000 - 3500 BC - Mesopotamia (Sumer), Poppy domesticated.
7500 y a - Earth experiences a cold climate period? Lasts for 500 or more years.
7500 y a - Earliest example of chickpeas being used. Poland, archaeological evidence of cheese making. Ukraine, Romania, earliest examples of traps used for hunting.
7,000 y a - Earliest example of Dolmen, single chamber tomb, consists of two stones supporting another on top (table design), found in western Europe, would spread and be common 4000 - 3000 BCE in Europe.
6950 - 6440 y a - Papua New Guinea, cultivation of Taro and Yam.
6,500 y a - Croatia, earliest example of an oven found. Slovenia, dental filling made with beeswax.
5600 BCE - Evidence of The Black Sea Flood, turning the fresh water lake into a salt water sea, rose shorelines and displaced populations (source of flood myths in religions).
5500 BCE - Pakistan, evidence of Cotton found in copper beads. Egypt, earliest Combs found (placing a leaf in the teeth can create a primitive sound instrument).
5500-5000 BCE - Serbia, Copper Smelting.
5200 - 4700 BCE - Iran, earliest evidence of a wheel, for pottery, made of stone or clay.
5000 BCE - Iranian plateau, evidence of Bronze made with naturally occurring arsenic. Tin would replace as the major ingredient (and releasing non-toxic vapors) in the late 3000 BCE period. Iran, evidence of wine found, using sealed containers. China, Hemp domestication (smoking was likely cause for spread, Iron Age would use for production); Rammed Earth construction technique. Egypt, Badarian culture starts farming, used boomerangs. Roundels, circular enclosure often with entrances aligned to solstice, would be constructed in Central Europe (Germany, 120-150 altogether). Siberia, oldest carpet found (likely a funeral gift, from Armenia, featured griffons). Mesopotamia: first use of Stamp Seals for government purposes; Rotary Quern milling stones are introduced. Armenia: possible origin of Apricots. Lake Zurich, cultivation of Pear.
4800 BCE - Egypt, early evidence of peas being grown. Cairn of Barnenez, Brittany, England, begins (burial monument and later bronze age use, considered one of the oldest and largest man made structures).
4700 - 4200 BCE - The town of Solnitstata, considered the oldest known settlement in Europe. Built around a salt deposit.
4500 BCE - Indus Valley, irrigation. Wine production reaches Greece. Carnac Stones, Brittany, France; would become large complex of standing stones, menhirs, domens, tumuli (burial mounds, with passage tombs), large rectangle formed by stone.
4500-4000 BCE - China, Investment Casting develops.
4200 - 4000 BCE - Mesopotamia develops true, easy to spin pottery wheels.
4000 BCE - (Mankind has achieved “Farmer status.”) Egyptians start building big Brick structures; manufacturing Papyrus; Gold artifacts. Earliest examples of Kilns. NE Italy, archaeological find of Appleseeds. Sicily, evidence of wine found. Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Horse domestication begins. Thought to be when Cattle were turned into Ox for Draft Animal purposes. Pontic Language Explosion. [People from north of the Caspian and Black Seas migrated around Eurasia, ancestor of western languages. (shared origins with: milk, horses, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, grain, copper, carts, yoke, weaving, mead; patrilineal clans)]. Earliest examples of Viticulture (wine making). Levant, earliest examples of harvesting Olives; start using grain Silos. Art: Earliest depiction of Shoes, Sandals. China: example of a Loom for Silk production; Ramie (similar to flax, requires chemical processing, not as popular, believed to be used for Egyptian mummy wraps). Persia (Iran), Mung Bean domestication?, Chang (precursor to Harp) found on artwork, made with sheep guts. Mesopotamia: Stamp Seals come into use; Mirrors made of Copper; earliest pipes for moving water. Europe, farming reaches northern regions. Anatolia, Silver production.
4000 - 1000 BCE - Ethiopia, Teff is discovered (can feed people and livestock, building material).
6,000 y a - Earth experiences a cold climate period? (Starting maybe 500 years earlier and ending 500 years later.)
3800 - 3500 BCE - Czech Republic, possible evidence of earliest plowed fields.
5,700 y a - Lolland Island, a blue eyed, dark haired, dark skin woman spits out some Birch Bark gum. Oldest complete human genome extracted. Had Mononucleosis ("kissing disease"). Possible archeological evidence of pit traps used for migrating animal hunting.
3630 BCE - Oldest example of silk fabric found.
5,500 - 4,700 y a - Georgia, tomb found had honey remains on pottery. (This culture could identify Linden, Berry, and Meadow-Flower varieties.)
3500 BCE - City of Uruk: (Mesopotamia) begins outward expansion and influence, later first example of organized warfare (would influence Egyptians to start building pyramids); "Cylinder Seals," a type of noble seal, that can be rolled unto wet clay (would be popular until 1000 BCE). Iraq, Kish Tablet, considered to represent the early transition from pictographic to cuneiform. Mesopotamia, earliest Harps and Lyres found; Gold artifacts. Modern humans settle the western coast of Europe, hunter-gatherers. Egyptians show Cat domestication; Gold Smelting; used a vertical Gnomon as a primitive Sundial? Iran, Beer made from Barley. Armenia, earliest Leather Shoe found. China, Pottery in shape of silkworm indicates earliest example of Sericulture (silk worm production).
3500 - 3350 BCE - Mesopotamia, earliest evidence of wheeled vehicles. Indus Valley civilization uses Stamp Seals with a type of script.
3400 BCE (5,400 years ago) - First metal casting. France, Cow skull showing Trepanation found.
5,400 -5,100 y a - Itzi the Iceman dies in the mountains of Northern Italy. Had a copper axe. Earliest evidence of tattoos. Shoes made from two types of animal skin (bear and deer). Arsenic residue in his hair.
3300 BCE - Egypt, tomb paintings show people Dancing.
3200 BCE - Examples of using symbols to represent real life objects (would go to form written language). Ireland, construction begins on Newgrange, largest passage tomb in Europe, aligned to winter solstice. Egypt, Bead made of Meteoric Iron found.
3100 - 2900 BCE - Jemdet Nasr period, following fall of Uruk, would be known as establishing Cuneiform as a proper language.
3100 BCE - Upper and Lower Egypt unified. Mesopotamia, likely evidence of the earliest Lute type device.
3000 BCE - Onset of Bronze. Mesopotamia, Irrigation; Glass Beads appear (possible side effect of making metal); possible earliest Iron working. Sumer, Medical text found on tablet, believed oldest ever found. Egypt, first record of a Doctor named, Imhotep; Antimony harvested from rock and made into eye makeup; earliest evidence of domestic Donkeys in the south. Dromedary Camels likely domesticated in Somalia at this time. (Camel hair can be harvested for shelter and clothing, outer guard hairs make for water proof coats. Camel milk readily turns into yogurt. To turn into butter requires a clarifying agent and extended process.) Chicken reaches Europe from Asia. England, earliest Stone Circles found. Slovakia, Romania, earliest chainmail found. Sheep chosen for wooly coat, not long hair. China, Clay Bells found. India, River Buffalo domesticated (water buffalo); Jute grown for fiber (burlap). Northern Iran, earliest examples of Trumpets. SE Asia, earliest records of Radish.
2800 BCE - Solid evidence of plowed fields. China, Copper smelting discovered. Sumer, Battle Wagons (4 wheels, likely evolved into a Battle Cart, and later into Chariot).
2700 BCE - Chinese treatise on health. 40 kinds identified.
2650 BCE - Egypt, dental work found.
2630-10 BCE - Egypt, Pyramid of Djoser constructed by Imhotep, considered first.
2600 - 1900 BCE - Indus Valley, Stoneware Pottery (meaning fired at 1000 degrees Celsius), would become a major industry.
2560 BCE - Great Pyramid of Giza completed.
2500 BCE - Evidence of The Amber Road, trade route from the Baltic Sea to Mediterranean Sea. E Iran, Bactrian Camels domesticated. Iraq, "Lyres of Ur," considered world's oldest stringed instruments. Peru, oldest Sling ever found. Egypt, earliest depiction of a Khopesh (sword).
2500 - 2000 BCE - Mali, domestication of Pearl Millet. Turkey, Meteoric Iron dagger.
2400 BCE - Sumer, description of Prostitution and a Brothel-Temple to Fertility Goddess.
2300 BCE - Mesopotamia, Urukagina of Lagash, considered the earliest Law Code. (Widows and orphans exempt from taxes, state pays for funeral expenses, the rich must pay in silver and cannot force the poor against will, checked power of priests, protect from usury, abolished polyandry). Iran, Quince (fruit). China, oldest Gnomon (painted stick that casts a shadow for sundial purpose).
2200 BCE - China, first known tax, using salt.
2200-2000 BCE - Turkey, Iron Smelting.
2100 - 2050 BCE - City of Ur: Earliest written Code of Law discovered. References Butter. (Fines for bodily harm, references murder, robbery, adultery, rape. Two classes of people: free and slave.)
4000 - 3000 y a - Mesopotamia, earliest Scissors (shear, spring type). India, Mung Bean domesticated.
2000 BCE - Murals show horses pulling chariots. Horses become common in western Europe. England, Great Orme Mine started, would become largest copper mine in region (most productive between 1700 - 1400 BCE), used bone and stone tools. China, Bells made out of metal (Bellfounding); domestication of the Swamp Buffalo (water buffalo). Ghana, earliest evidence of Cowpea (black eyed pea). India, Canola/Rapeseed. Egypt, Lupin Beans. Greece, Kale grown. Pakistan, Harappa, earliest sanitation in housing.
1800 BCE - Egypt, medical text on gynecological issues; Safflower for pigment. India, Iron working.
1754 BCE - Code of Hammurabi (recognized Prostitution and gave women protection and inheritance; theorized that a fertility goddess had a temple that offered sex workers).
1700 - 1200 BCE - (Late Bronze Age) 8 societies in Middle East: Aegean, Egyptian, Hittite, Canaanite, Cypriot, Mitanni, Assyrian, Babylonian. Considered a "globalized world system." Next time this would occur is today.
1700 BCE - The "Mari Letters" reference Minoan society, King Hammurabi.
1650 BCE - Greece, earliest chariots found.
1628 BCE - Island of Thera/Santorini experiences huge volcanic eruption, possibly causing a tsunami thru eastern Europe.
1600-1500 BCE - Greece, Helmet formed of boar tusks found.
1500 BCE - Modern Trumpet design found in eastern Mediterranean. India, Pigeon Pea domesticated. Egypt, Mercury found in tombs; archaeologists find earliest Sundials found. China, Water Clocks.
1400 BCE - Syria, Hurrian Songs, cuneiform music tablet in Ugarit. Greece, oldest body armor found, made of bronze, Dendra Panoply. China, Meteoric Iron axeheads. Art representation of Scale Mail in Egypt. Art: representation of Shields.
1350 BCE - Turkey, Hittites chronicle Egyptian prisoners of war bringing "the plague.”
1300 BCE - Uluburun Shipwreck, off coast of Turkey, had 300 sixty pound copper ingots (10 tons), 1 ton of tin, and tin objects and ingots of colored glass (blue, rose, brown). From Cypress/Minoa.
1300? - 900? BCE - Eastern Mediterranean experiences a 300? year drought. (Could also be: Cypress 1200- 850. Syria 1250-1187. Galilee 1250-1100)
1279 BCE - Battle of Qadesh (Egypt vs Hittites).
1200 BCE (3,200 years ago) - Onset of Iron smelting. Earliest Camel saddles appear. Last appearance of Megaliths. India, earliest evidence of Firewalking.
1200 BCE - Eastern Mediterranean civilization collapse. Drought in Greece. Earthquake series.
1188-1177 BCE - Egypt suffers invasions from "The Sea People."
1185 BCE - Syria, Ugarit Letter, Famine.
1140? BCE - Ramses 6th, mummy found to have small pox. No record of people dying from small pox.
1100 BCE - Phoenicians establish nation. Europe, Iron Age.
1100? BCE - Earth experiences a cold temperature period?
1100-750 BCE - Egypt, Iron Smelting.
1070 BCE - Egyptian mummy found with Silk in hair, earliest evidence of Silk Road.
1000 BCE - Early Cuneiform script (late stages, still pictograph in nature). Bactria, Barbat (primitive lute). Egypt, Kenaf is grown for fibers, leaves can be eaten by animals and humans (similar to Jute and Hemp; rope, rough fabric, sails). Mediterranean, Cabbage domesticated. China, Iron Age.
930 BCE - Camel bones found in Arabian peninsula. Jordan, earliest Bloomery for Iron working found.
800 - 600 BCE - Ethiopia, Sorghum Wheat begins to be harvested.
800 BCE - Considered the beginning of Ancient Greece, after the Mycenae Civilization. China, Bloomeries used.
700-500 BCE - The Illiad composed.
700 BCE - Turkey, first Coins in Lydia. Assyria, first equipment recognized as a Saddle for a Horse.
600 BCE - Earliest example of a Steel Sword.
600-400 BCE - Ancient Greece rise of scientific inquiry and philosophy
550 BCE - The Illiad written down.
500 BCE - Camels used in warfare. Persians use kettle drums for military maneuvers, frighten enemies. Greece, Grape Syrup, early form of sweetener and preservative. Blackberries consumed around Europe. Spain, Disk Quern developed.
400 BCE - The "Celts/Gaeil" settle Ireland.
396 BCE - Olympics, horn blowing competitions.
314 BCE - China, first mention of Sweet Orange.
298 BCE - Foot powered Loom.
200 BCE - China starts making paper.
100 CE - Sorghum Wheat domesticated. Mediterranean, Cauliflower.
400 CE - Bellfounding comes to Europe.
800 CE - Start of most recent Interglacial peak period.
1200 CE (800 years ago) - First Cannon foundry. Europe, first Paper mills.
1250 - 1850 CE - Earth experiences a small Ice Age.
1500 CE - Concept of Religion becomes clearly defined.
1650 CE - Pendulum Clock.
1750 CE - France, Strawberry grown in garden. Barbados, Grapefruit.
1760 CE - Bat guano begins showing increased levels of lead, indicating the Industrial Revolution.
1880 CE (140 years ago), Carnegie steel erects skyscrapers.
submitted by SkyAnimal to JoeRoganpodcast [link] [comments]

2020.09.22 23:53 uwuGod How To Back Out of a Conversation With Someone Who's a Lot Weirder Than You Initially Thought?

I'm sure this has been discussed to death already. But I met someone on a dating site a few days ago. Their profile seemed fine, perfectly normal. Actually they seemed like a great person. Clearly someone else must've written their bio for them, though, because once they actually started messaging me, things go really weird, really fast.
Long-story-short they seem like someone with some type of age-regression complex, their sense of humor is stuck in 2007's meme era of "Herp derp! xD So randumz! haha waffles! Trollfaced!! Owned!", which is obnoxious. They're super clingy, as in if I don't reply back within the same minute, they say something like, "Are you still there?? :3 :3 Hewwo?", and they generally just act like a child. For reference, I'm 21 and they're 24.
Personally I don't mind them, I just thought based on their bio that they were someone who was actually serious and more aligned with my interests - hence why I feel like someone else wrote their bio. They're a completely different person than their story would lead on. I feel super awkward and don't know what to do. They talk like they think I'm cute and are into me. I don't want to lead them on, obviously, but it's become so clear in just the last 24 hours that they're not my type.
I guess we could just be friends, but again, these types of people usually take, "Let's just be friends", as, "Let's be friends for now and I'll keep asking you really personal questions every now and then because I still think I have a chance with you". I'm worried I'm just being too judgmental too quickly, but I'm worried that if I keep encouraging them to talk to me, they'll get too attached. So do I just drop them now and block them, or try and, "let them down gently", whatever that even means?
submitted by uwuGod to dating_advice [link] [comments]

2020.09.15 08:54 datingwithherpes Are There Any Herpes Dating Sites Review For Herpes Singles?

Are There Any Herpes Dating Sites Review For Herpes Singles? submitted by datingwithherpes to HSVpositive [link] [comments]

2020.09.11 08:07 mw22AZ disclosure guide ghsv1

just wanted to drop my fav disclosure guide back in the chat. I usually just send the link to the person I'm disclosing to lol
submitted by mw22AZ to Herpes [link] [comments]

2020.09.06 20:21 corythephotoguy You're gonna be okay.

I want to share my story for anyone out there who’s just tested positive recently and might be feeling like damaged goods. Skip to the asterisks if you’re not into backstories.
I’m a 29m that grew up in a very conservative homeschooled Christian home, to a mom and dad that want good things for their kids. In their case, teaching abstinence was the “loving thing” and wanted to make sure their children didn’t give themselves to a partner before marriage. Admirable, but not entirely practical for a lot of us. You may have already guessed that my sex ed was nonexistent, and you would be correct.
No public school, no college experience, I moved from my hometown to the city, about 45 mins away. Apart from the topic of sex, I’d actually managed to become well-adjusted in the other areas of life, despite my upbringing. I wound up losing my virginity at the ripe age of 25 to an old acquaintance. Somewhat anticlimactic, but at least I’d gotten that first time out of the way.
I’m a photographer, and that until last year, didn’t have much money to my name, that is until I landed a job at an ad agency. Up until last fall, I’d always had roommates to offset the cost of living, and with that, I never felt comfortable bringing someone home. I was still “waiting for marriage” in most people’s eyes anyway. So sex was a pretty rare thing. With the new job has come extra money, and I wound up getting my own place a year ago. It’s been pretty great.
Now you may ask, “What, no girlfriends? No dating? What about relationships? Nothing really physical there?” Try and understand where I’m coming from, and know that with homeschooling, dating wasn’t encouraged and that severely stunted my love life well into my twenties. Lotta hours sitting in therapy has helped unpack and sort out my upbringing, for which I’m grateful. (Side note, therapy is so so so amazing, I wish everyone had access to it. If you can financially swing it, GO.)
Ok, the herpes part. With my newfound freedom of having my own place, I set out on my Tinder adventures as well as going out on weekends. I’d brought a couple people home within a short amount of time and was feeling pretty great about life, and had enough confidence to hop on tinder and who knows, maybe find a girlfriend? While on the app, I was still going out by myself on the weekends, and this is where I fucked up. One of my partners (on the second time she came over) let me go raw, no questions asked by either party. Should’ve wrapped it up for safety reasons, but we were pretty into it in the heat of the moment. The next day I didn’t think too much of it, we parted ways knowing that we’re not gonna see each other again and we’ll just keep it to two times.
Fast forward a week. I go on a date with a literal angel. October 30th. It’s cold. I’d already dipped into my Christmas playlist on the way there. She shows up and is so fucking cute in her little winter coat and sock hat and little winter boots. She’s tiny.
For a couple hours, we talk, laugh, share life stories, and joke around with the bartender. She’s so smart, witty, charming, has the prettiest eyes, graduated top in her class in everything, started a non-profit, and is so driven in life. God, she’s so attractive in every way. We call it an early night but the feeling is mutual. Date #2 is very much going to happen. We step outside and it’s starting to snow. Would’ve been a perfect time to kiss her, but we’re both kinda shy anyway so that didn’t happen. When I got home, I remember standing in my apartment kitchen saying to my dog, “Snoopy, I had a GREAT date tonight”.
Three dates in, things are going super well. At the end of the third date, I finally mustered up the courage to kiss her. It was well received. I found out later that that’s the kiss that sealed the deal for her choosing me.
After the third date, she’s away for the weekend on a solo trip she’d scheduled months prior, so I’m just doing my thing back in my city when it happened. That Saturday I woke up with a cold sore on my lower lip and a tingling sensation on both my lips, and a red rash on my junk. I went to the doctor and they confirmed that I indeed had both HSV1 and HSV2.
I’m devastated. My thoughts are as such:

  1. I’m now concerned that I may have kissed this beautiful little person (can’t stress this enough, she’s 5’ 2”) and given her HSV1 unknowingly.

  1. I didn’t realize how badly I wanted to be in a relationship once the thought of being “unlovable” was on the table. In my mind, I’m now damaged goods. Sure, maybe I’ll have to wrap it up for the rest of my life, but the thought of not even KISSING anyone? It hurt. So so bad.

  1. It’s going to be next FRIDAY before I see her. So 6 more days until I can talk to her in person, explain what’s going on, and get her thoughts on the situation. Obviously I want to be transparent with her now that I know I have something.
That week was agony. Not only was it one of the worst weeks at work that I’ve ever had, on top of it all my body was clammy, my penis hurt, and at every turn, my lips felt like they were going to flare up. I was a mess, checking this subreddit and any obscure webMD type of site to set my mind at ease, to get some sort of positive statistic that would help me sleep at night. The permanence of it all was a lot to deal with. And to think, I could’ve avoided this completely if I hadn’t fucked up mere days before meeting this girl.
Friday rolls around, and I’d suggested this restaurant near my place that looked nice from the outside, but I hadn’t been before and neither had she, so we went. She shows up, looking STUNNING, and I greet her like I hadn’t been rehearsing any sort of herpes announcement speech over and over and over again that week. We get seated, and that’s when I look at the prices on the menu. I wound up spending nearly $200 on dinner, but hey “It’s the last date I’ll ever have, so let’s go out in style?” was my thought.
We walk back to my place, and watch a Wes Anderson movie. After the credits roll, it’s naturally time to make out. We’ve both waited until the 4th date for this, and from the outside looking in, it’s all green lights. We’re so very much into each other. “TIME TO TELL HER” my brain nervously reminds me. I’m kind of just stalling at this point, trying to enjoy the last moments with this girl before I shatter this budding relationship.
I stand up all awkwardly, and go and grab a Christmas tree that I got that week and suggest that we set it up. 5 minutes later, we’re done with that task (it was a short tree, kinda like her) and we both sit down on the couch, ready to continue whatever the fuck might happen next. I looked straight ahead while she looked at me and I said under my breath “you’re really cool… I need you to know something though. I found out this week that I have HSV1 and HSV2”. I wanted to delay calling it herpes, just cause… herpes.
She immediately says “Oh, I’m not worried about that. You know that x percent of this number of people never….” something something something, I don’t know exactly what she said cause I got hung up on the first sentence, but she spouted 3-4 facts of herpes and was super knowledgable about risks of transmission and how to mitigate the chance of a partner getting it. I was taken aback.
And then right at that moment, Snoopy took a shit right in front of us.
We cleaned it up immediately, took him outside to finish his business, and went back inside, laughing the entire time. We finished our conversation about my condition, and she was incredibly understanding. I also had to explain in that same sitting that the only other relationship that I’ve had only lasted 6 weeks, and that I’m no veteran when it comes to dating. She just took it all in, and listened. After an hour or so of talking, it was pretty late, so we hugged and I bid her farewell. We said we’d get together for a movie later that week, but I wasn’t banking on anything. It did feel good to know that at least someone would listen and not freak out.
We wound up going out on a few more dates, and then a few more, and then a few more and one day we just knew we wanted to make it official. That was mid December. Happy to say we just got a place together, and now Snoopy has her cat he can play with, although I don’t think her cat is as thrilled about it.
Herpes sucks initially. I think more emotionally and mentally than physically, really. I take a daily antiviral that I got through Roman (if you just got tested positive, they’re a great resource to get you going with antivirals). Physically, not so bad. I had around 2-3 weeks of feeling awful, then occasional outbreaks for a few days through march. Haven’t had much of any outbreaks since then. We still have sex regularly, and since she's not a fan of condoms (yay) we've never really used them. No transmission thus far.
If you’re feeling down because of testing positive, your symptoms WILL get better. Your friends WILL understand. You CAN find someone that will love you. Just take the right meds, wrap it up if that’s what your partner wants, don't have sex during an outbreak, and offer full disclosure. It’ll be tougher to date, but not impossible.
The biggest thing here is to not let it run your life. It’s something I’ve grown to not really need to think about aside from taking a pill every morning.
I hope this helps. You’re stronger than you think, just give it some time.
TL/DR: I got herpes with a partner a week before meeting my current gf, but she's been incredibly understanding, supportive, and we now live together. Life is good.
submitted by corythephotoguy to Herpes [link] [comments]

2020.08.28 19:18 IdolA28Augl Its G-ay Millionaire Da-ting Nh

Its G-ay Millionaire Da-ting Nh
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2020.08.28 18:11 HaulA28Augl Bum-ble G-ay International Da-ting Too

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2020.08.18 10:05 liverhelplineindia Liver transplantation in india, Liver Transplant In Delhi

Liver transplantation in india, Liver Transplant In Delhi

A Liver Transplant is a surgery in which the entire liver or just a part of it, may be transplanted. In a liver transplant surgery, an unhealthy or a diseased liver of a person is replaced with a healthy liver from another person.
In most cases, the healthy liver comes from an organ donor who may have just passed away.
In some cases, a healthy living person, also donates a part of their liver. It could be a family member, or someone whose blood type is a good match. This person may not necessarily be a relative.
Since the liver regenerates, a living donor can have a healthy life, even after donating a part of it.
The donor’s liver grows back to it’s normal size after surgery. Since the liver is the only organ that can replace lost or injured tissue, the part of the liver that gets donated, also grows back to its normal size within a few weeks.

Why is it necessary to get a liver transplant?

A person cannot survive if the liver stops functioning properly, which is why a liver transplant is needed.
A liver transplant is usually advised in chronic liver failure or last stage of liver disease.
Liver Cirrhosis happens when scar tissue replaces the healthy tissue of the liver. Thereby, reducing the liver’s ability to function properly. Cirrhosis is the chief cause of end stage liver disease.
Apart from liver cirrhosis, other causes of end stage liver disease can also be caused due to:
  • Autoimmune Hepatitis – Happens when the body’s immune system attacks the liver and causes inflammation.
  • Biliary Atresia – This happens in newborns, it is a rare disease of the liver and bile duct
  • Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver (NAFLD) or Non Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) : This is not caused due to alcohol. The liver is damaged due to excess fat built up on the liver. NASH is a type of NAFLD which includes hepatitis, fat build up and liver cell damage.
  • Viral Hepatitis – Caused due to Hepatitis B or C
  • Metabolic diseases – Disorders that alter the chemical activity in cells affected by the liver
  • Primary liver cancer – are cancer tumors that originate in the liver
  • Acute Hepatic Necrosis – Toxins, illegal drugs, medicine reactions and acute infections can also cause the the liver’s tissue to die

What is the evaluation process for liver transplant?

Liver Helpline India team will decide if you are a good candidate for a liver transplant. The team makes you undergo a series of tests, to place you on the national transplant waiting list. The transplant centre team consists of the following:
  • Transplant surgeon
  • Transplant nurses
  • Transplant provider as well as a hepatologist
  • Psychologist
  • Social Worker
  • Other team members like anaesthesiologist, chaplain, dietician etc.

The Liver transplant evaluation process includes:

  • Blood Tests – Blood tests help determine the chances that the donor’s liver will not get rejected by your body. Hence they help find a good donor match and also determine your priority on the waiting list.
  • Psychological and social evaluation – This helps you and the team assess various issues like your finances, post surgery support from your family and friends and also your stress levels.
  • Diagnostic tests – These let your doctor check your liver and your general health. Tests may include, Ultrasound, X-Ray, heart and lung test, dental exams, colonoscopy and liver biopsy. Women may need few more tests like mammogram, Pap-smear, gynaecology exam.
The liver transplant team assesses if the test results and information it has received, meets all the criteria required for the liver transplant.

Liver transplant may be denied in case you have the following conditions:

  • If you have heart problems or other health problems which may be severe
  • If you are unable to follow a treatment plan
  • If you have serious conditions apart from liver disease which may further deteriorate after the transplant
  • If you have an infection that cannot be treated
  • If you consume alcohol excessively
  • If you have metastatic cancer, where the cancer has spread from it’s main location to other parts of the body

How does your name come on the waiting list for liver transplant surgery

  • You will feature on the waiting list of the transplant basis your liver and health condition
  • The list is usually long, patients who need a new liver urgently are given priority and their name’s put on the top
  • The organ is available for transplant when a donor dies. When this happens our team at Liver Helpline India informs the candidate, who will then need to come to the hospital immediately and undergo the liver transplant surgery
  • If the candidate has a living donor, then the day of the transplant can be planned in advance. It is important for the donor to be healthy and have a blood type which is a good match for the recipient. To be assured of the donor’s decision and their comfort with it, liver India also conducts a psychological test with the donor. Both, the donor as well as the recipient undergo the surgery at the same time.

Does liver transplant have any risk?

There are risks in all procedures. Following are the complications that may happen due to the liver surgery:
  • Bile leakage or blocked bile ducts
  • Infection
  • Blood vessels that may be blocked to the new liver
  • The new liver may not work for a short time post surgery
  • Bleeding
The body’s immune system may also reject the new liver, as the immune system treats any foreign object or tissue as a threat and starts attacking it.
Anti-rejection medicines or immunosuppresive medicines are prescribed for the rest of your life to weaken your immune’s responce, and help the new liver survive in your body.
Some liver diseases may reoccur even after a transplant. You may be prescribed Hepatitis B or C medicine to increase the success rate of your transplant.

How to prepare yourself for a Liver Transplant Surgery?

  • Feel free to ask any questions and clarify your doubts about the surgery during the explanation session with the team in liver India
  • You will be provided with a consent form, you should read it carefully and clarify your doubts, if any, before signing it and giving the permission for the surgery
  • In case of a planned living transplant, follow the instructions provided to you, of not eating or drinking before the surgery. If the transplant is facilitated through a donor, who has just died, then you should not eat or drink, once your informed about the liver’s availability
  • A sedative may be given to you, to help you relax before the surgery
Based on your health condition, Our team of experts may also give you some additional instructions, which are important for your to follow.

What happens during a Liver Transplant Surgery?

Liver transplant surgery requires hospitalization, and usually happens in the following process:
  • You will need to change into the hospital gown
  • Intravenous or an IV line will be started in your hand
  • Catheters will be put in your neck and wrist, or in the groin area or under your collarbone to check your heart and blood pressure, and to get samples
  • You will be placed with your back on the operation table
  • Hair on the surgical site will be clipped or removed
  • A catheter will be inserted into your bladder to drain off urine
  • You will be given sedatives, and once sedated, the anaesthesiologist puts a tube into your lung to help you breathe with a ventilator. During your surgery, the anaesthesiologist constantly monitors your blood pressure, breathing, heart rate and oxygen levels in the blood.
  • The skin on the surgical site is cleaned with a sterile antiseptic solution
  • An incision is made by the doctor, under your ribs, on both sides of your belly. The incision goes straight up, over the breast bone
  • The doctor separates the diseased liver from the nearby organs and structures, with utmost care
  • To stop the blood from flowing into the diseased liver, the attached arteries and veins are clamped
  • To remove the diseased liver and implant the donor liver, there are various surgery methods, depending on your condition and the doctor’s practices, the doctor decides the one best suited for you.
  • The diseased liver is removed after it is cut-off from the blood vessels
  • The surgeon checks the donor liver before implanting it on your body
  • The donor liver is then attached to your blood vessels, and blood flow to the new liver is started. The surgeon checks for any bleeding on the stitches
  • The new liver is then attached to the bile ducts
  • The incision is closed with the help of stitches or surgical staples
  • To reduce swelling, a drain may be placed into the incision site
  • Dressing or a sterile bandage is applied

What happens after a liver transplant?

When the liver transplant surgery is over, you may be taken to the recovery room for a few hours and then taken to the ICU for a few days, which has monitors that show your heartbeat, breathing rate, blood pressure, oxygen levels and other readings. You will be hospitalized for 1-2 weeks or more, depending on your recovery.
A breathing tube which helps you breathe through the ventilator is inserted in your throat. Depending on your condition, the same may be kept for a few hours or a few days.
To remove the air that you swallow, a thin tube may be inserted into your stomach, through the nostrils. The tube is removed when the bowel regains it’s normal functioning. Food and drink is allowed only when the tube is removed.
All systems like the circulatory system, kidney, lungs etc. will be checked for smooth functioning. To check on the new liver, blood samples will be taken frequently.
Intravenous drips (IV drips) are given to help maintain your blood pressure, heart, and to also manage any bleeding problems. The drips are reduced when you slowly start recovering, and will be taken off post which antibiotics are given.
Once you are stable, the breathing and stomach tubes will be removed. You can now drink liquids, and slowly progress to solid foods as adviced by your doctor.
To ensure the right dose and mix of the anti-rejection medicine, our team of experts will monitor you closely
You will be moved from the ICU to a private room once your condition improves. Activities like getting out of your bed and walking for a longer time will slowly be introduced. Slowly, you will also be given more solid foods.
At the time of your discharge, your transplant team guides you thoroughly on how to take care of yourself at home, after a liver transplant surgery.

How to take care of yourself at home after your liver transplant surgery?

  • Follow the bathing instructions provided to you. Keep your surgical area clean and dry.
  • It is important to follow the activity restrictions. Do not drive till adviced by your doctor.
  • Call your doctor if you have redness, bleeding or swelling or any other drainage from the incision site
  • Call your doctor if you experience more pain around the the site where the incision has been made as this may be due to infection or rejection
  • Call your doctor immediately if you have fever as this may be due to an infection or rejection
  • Speak to your doctor if you have vomiting or diarrhoea
  • Call your doctor immediately if you notice your skin and eyes turning yellow, as this may be due to jaundice
A follow up visit will be required, and stitches or surgical staples which were not removed during your discharge from the hospital, will now be removed. Depending on your condition, your doctor may give you any further advice, as necessary.

How to prevent rejection of the new liver after a liver transplant surgery?

You will be prescribed immunosuppressive medicines or anti rejection medicines to weaken the immune system and help the new liver survive in your body. These medicines have to be taken for the rest of your life.
Since each body is unique and reacts differently to the medicines, the transplant team will create a treatment plan that is best suited for you.
In most cases, a few immunosuppressants are prescribed, and the dosage is changed based on the responce.
Our team of experts, at Liver Helpline India, will watch for any signs of rejection actively, through blood tests. You may need to undergo Liver Biopsy, in case there are any signs of rejection.
Since anti-rejection medicines suppress the immunity system, you may be more prone to the following infections post your liver transplant surgery
  • Respiratory Viruses
  • Thrush or Oral yeast infections
  • Herpes
Avoid crowded places or meeting anyone with any infection, during the first few months of your surgery.

What are the symptoms of rejection?

Following may be a sign of rejection:
  • If you develop jaundice and notice yellowing of the skin and eyes
  • If your urine is dark in colour
  • If you have fever
  • If there is itching
  • If you are easily irritated or annoyed
  • If you have a headache
  • If your belly is swollen or sore
  • If you experience extreme tiredness or fatigue
  • If you have an upset stomach
Since the symptoms are unique to each patient, call our team of experts, even if you experience any one of the above mentioned symptoms.

Next Steps

Ensure you know the following, before agreeing to the test or procedure
  • What is the test or procedure called
  • Why the test or the procedure is needed
  • What type of results may be expected and what they may mean
  • What are the benefits and risks associated with the procedure or the test
  • Are there any complications or possible side effects
  • The date and place where procedure or the test will be conducted, and the time taken for the same
  • Qualifications of the person doing the test or the procedure
  • What are the consequences of not undergoing the procedure or the test
  • Is there an option or an alternative for the test or the procedure
  • When and how will you see the results
  • If you have any questions or problems, who should you call, after the test or procedure
  • What are the cost implications of the test or procedure
One of the best hospitals for a liver transplantation in India. Our team comprises of the best liver surgeons in india, who are highly experienced and very approachable. For any queries, or to book an appointment, Call (+91)- 9650915455.
Tags = Liver Transplant in Delhi, Liver Transplantation in India, Liver Tranplant cost in India
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2020.08.17 23:21 narcthrowawaydiscard I was brutally discarded 2 weeks ago

Two weeks ago I had no idea I was a covert narcissist's victim. But all the red flags pointed to yes. And as I found this sub and started reading, piece after piece fell into place.
We were together a bit over 4 years. Lived together after 6 months. We met online and bonded quickly over mutual interests like bands. We made out on the first date, by the second, a picnic two days later where we made out for hours, we already really liked each other.
The first major red flag was when he told me he'd fucked his ex 2 weeks before he met me. But he swore up and down it was over and that he had moved on from that terrible relationship. Even to the end he never went into much detail. Now I know why. I had a bad feeling about this but decided to give him the benefit of the doubt bc I liked him so much and he seemed utterly sincere.
He's been in a string of relationships back to back since he was 21. Never single for long.
Obviously he love bombed the fuck out of me. I made a huge mistake and found this thing called 36 Relationship Questions and shared a lot of my past which is rife with abuse of various sorts. Now I know this just helped him reel me in. He was so understanding and kind, not like my other loser ltr's. I was determined not to rush into sex. We ended up having unprotected sex about 3-4 weeks in. I took the morning after pill and cursed myself.
We went on a vacation soon after that and it was great. I felt so safe in his arms. He was tall, great body, gorgeous face, and kind, so I overlooked the red flags like the early sex. We were infatuated, that's all.
He said I love you not long after we had sex. I was taken aback and told him it was too soon for me and he told me that was fine, he could wait.
From day 1 I was adamant about never having kids. For many reasons this is a deal breaker for me and I have ended dating early before because I don't want to waste anyone's time. He said it was fine. That he was undecided on kids anyway. Spoiler alert: he was never undecided.
About six months into living together, he found out he had herpes simplex 2 and genital warts. But he hadn't cheated. He swore it and I believed him. He was far too loving and focused on me to ever imagine him cheating. It must have been left over from an ex, he said. He swore he'd do all he could to keep me from being infected.
I brought up the kids thing from time to time because I just had a feeling he was being disingenuous on the topic. He loves kids and small animals, especially cats. I love cats and desperately want 2 cats, a marriage, and a happy, calm home. He also knew this from the start and would entertain the thoughts often. Beautiful future faking. Anyway, he vehemently denied wanting kids. And despite my intuition, I believed him bc he was so convincing.
I have 2 degrees, but despite my education I was affected by the 2008 crash and was never able to get a career in that field off the ground. I've gone from job to job but never found anything I enjoyed. Despite this, I have recorded music albums and authored published books. I moved countries all on my own without help (am a dual citizen). I have a lot of accomplishments of which I am proud and have overcome a lot even though I obviously am not perfect. I have a plethora of interests and hobbies and am always educating myself on something I am curious about.
In contrast, he dropped out of school a semester before graduation. Never finished. He's also hopped from job to job. The only reason he has a ft job now is because of nepotism (family friends company). He hates his job. His only hobbies are the gym, video games, and reading music blogs. He has never lived anywhere else that the city he was born in. He doesn't have much ambition and for years was wrought with indecision over what to do with his life and if he should study. I encouraged him to go for IT and he did. Supposedly he's applying next year so now he studies high school level math to try to get in. He is not creative himself, and some of the things he loved about me was my ability to create, my worldliness, my wit.
He can't even cook for himself. Two years ago I had an elective but necessary surgery and I told him he'd have to cook for a month. It was like talking to a sulking toddler. Reluctantly he wrote down some recipes I dictated to him but it truly was a chore for him, poor thing. I had some complications but ultimately recovered and I am fine now. At least in that sense.
Two years ago I found out I had herpes. In the scope of things, it is treatable. You can take a daily pill and reduce the risk of infecting your partner to less than 3%. Guess who never even asked the doctor about this option? I was livid. He cringed like a beaten puppy, or maybe like a berated child, as I yelled at him. I cried. I stormed. I was deeply hurt at his uncharacteristic callousness. And he just hedged and looked uncomfortable.
A point of pride for me was that we hardly ever fought or even argued. Not even over little things. This was not actually a good thing, probably. So his reaction was odd and unfamiliar.
Last September I lost my job. I had money saved up. But he offered to pay more than 50% (as I had done when I made more money than him at another point). And after a lot of searching with no luck, covid hit. Due to asthma I decided it might be wise to focus on self publishing more seriously, something I have done on the side for about 8 years. So I wrote my first full-length novel in 32 days. The genre is erotic romance.
At first it was cool. He even bragged to his friends (that I barely know) how I was writing erotica. I'm not ashamed of it and this is a liberal country, but I felt it was a violation of my privacy. I told him it wasn't his place to tell people details like that. Why couldn't he just say fiction or even just romance and leave it at that? But no, he was so proud and just had to let that come out.
This was in June, right before my birthday. Here, my birthday falls quite close to a major holiday and always gets lost in the shuffle, like a kid whose birthday is December 26. And yet his birthdays were always big affairs with house parties and thoughtful gifts that I took weeks to plan and craft by hand, like knee-high knitted socks of my own design. I got things like a coffee thermos for mine (that he eventually took to work with him bc it broke, although he did replace it, but it was a household item and not mine) and if I was lucky, an aside mention at the "real" holiday.
For at least the past 6-9 months I've started having stomach pains and problems. Nothing really helped. He was moody, occasionally happy but often withdrawn. Things felt off. Our sex life, which was great at the beginning, started tapering off to about once a month.
He liked being dominant which I liked. Occasionally it would get rough, but he'd always stop if I wanted him to. So although it seemed a bit weird, and maybe not healthy for an abuse survivor, it was just kind of kinky right. And I felt like I was ok with it. But more and more often, I'd get drunk so I could go through with sex with him. It's not like it was bad, so i was confused. He'd make me come hard and he was the best lover technique-wise. He had amazing dirty talk... which seemed to disappear in the last year. I had to ask for it and it was half-hearted and repetitive.
A few months ago I started drinking more. I'm a homebrewer, so it's never in short supply. And it's covid, and I have been self isolating and focusing just on writing, but I'm lonely and unhappy. I take pride in my appearance and look great, but I stopped working out and even began to shower less. I had an almost weird aversion to it.
As an abuse survivor, I should have recognized the signs of self-protection: making oneself less attractive, needing to get drunk, odd stomach pains that got in the way of sex. I even neglected my fair household chores in favor of what I was working on (which does happen when you are in the creative zone, but you get the point). But I didn't. Because I was deep in the fog. I was sleeping badly. So was he. But I refused to see what was there because it was too frightening, and because cognitive dissonance.
Friday, 31 July we had sex. That Sunday, he dumped me out of the blue. And that Wednesday, he signed up for Tinder Gold and at least one other dating site. I know that he's already been on at least one date already.
I remember the look he gave me just an hour or two before he dropped the bomb. I was in bra and panties bc it was hot, and I am a bmi 24 but his eyes were on my stomach like it disgusted him. And it was so out of character from what I thought i knew. Someone here called it shark eyes.
Then I was relaxing in bed and he came in. He was full of quiet rage. He said he didn't love me and that it was over. I was devastated. Shocked. Crushed. I begged him to talk it over. To work it out. He said he'd been having "doubts" for a year and that I am too sensitive so there was never any point in talking to me. Then came the laundry list of seemingly random and unrelated petty reasons: I have too many hobbies. I don't like kids at the apartment and "everyone in their 30s and 40s has kids" so i need to get over it. I'm not nice enough to his friends and mom. Insert triangulation here. I'm too sensitive. We don't have enough sex. And he maybe still loves me but probably not (he couldn't decide). He would have "been willing to give up kids for me" but my disregard for him was just so painful for him. That I should have seen this coming, that he had been "waiting for me to change" for a year. That it was all so very obvious and that if I hadn't seen it, i didn't care about his feelings. And on and on. Death by a thousand cuts, right in the places he knew would hurt me most. When he was done he went into the other room to eat.
He was reading twitter and laughing at what he read as I sobbed in the other room.
I sobbed myself to sleep, clinging to him through the night as though if I hugged him tightly enough the person I thought I knew wpuld reappear. His body was stiff against mine and unrelenting, like he was made of wood. Like he was an alien in a human suit who had just pulled down the zipper.
I don't remember the context but just a few weeks ago I remember making jokes to the effect of "who are you and what have you done with nex?" And I wonder if he took this as a threat. He's let the mask slip a bit from time to time, like insulting me as a joke or being randomly mean to me. But I've always been quick to tell him this isn't ok and I won't stand for it. Mask back in place and I'm left just shaking my head in confusion.
But this was the full reveal. I never dreamed that the man I loved was such a fabrication. Paint over dirt. An actor on a screen, telling me the beautiful stories i most wanted to hear.
Nex's family/ friends adore him and he is charming, witty, good looking, and seemingly helpful and caring. Always reliable. There when you need him. Better than well-known personages BeefyManlyMan and MotherSaint rolled into one. I'm sure they have never seen the mask slip in any remarkable way.
So now I've been thrown in the garbage after 4 years. The speed and callousness of it took my breath away. He swore to me up and down that he wasn't cheating. Wouldn't date for "a really long time". Was already looking for another place but would let me know "in good time".
When we woke up the world once more crumbled down around my ears. I begged him to talk it over with me. To try to work it out. He said we would talk more when he got home from work. I cried all day.
When he got home he started packing a bag. He told me "you got into my head" and that there was nothing to talk about. He had already told his mom and family friends, only 12 hours after the deed. He was staying elsewhere for a while to think. Wouldn't tell me where or for how long or when he was moving.
A friend of mine who is a therapist said i could come stay with her because she knew I was alone. I left that Saturday. He messaged me on Friday and said he'd be coming home and i told him no. To come back the next day, when i knew I'd be gone. I didn't tell him that i was leaving or where. He didn't ask.
It was from this friend that I first thought that he might be a covert narcissist. She said it seemed likely. And after reading up on it I can't disagree.
His ipad and iphone are synced. I took the ipad with me. That's how i found out that he signed up for tinder three days after he dumped me out of the blue. I guess his promise of not dating for a long time was meant to be measured in fruit fly lifespans. It's also how i saw he'd gone on a date.
I called the girl and told her about him. I told her how he'd treated me and that i wasn't mad at her. That she simply deserved much better. She said they were just friends (lol ok). But I did what i could. (I am also the type to tell a wife her husband has been cheating even at my own expense. Because it's the right thing to do)
I don't know if she listened. It's not my problem anymore.
He found an apartment and is moving out 1 September. I saw this in his messages and I called our landlady. No word from him.
I got a few glasses of wine in me on Friday and decided to have it out. I'd been a mess all week. He was out with friends at a party so i picked that time to call him and yell at him. I know now not to feed the narc, but I had so much to say and he'd just ignored me. His excuses for not telling me he was moving were like water. First it was that he forgot (one of his very favorite gaslighting excuses). Then it was that the landlady wasn't supposed to tell me so soon (because 2 weeks before moving day is too soon). Then it was that he was respecting my space since i didn't want to talk. Then he got mad and said "fine I'm an asshole and i should have told you. I'm sorry ok??"
More was said but I did get him to reveal that he did want kids. But he never really directly admitted it of course. More "I was willing to give up kids for you" and then right back to "i was undecided". Fucking me was much more important than his dreams I guess... until it wasn't.
I've been reading this sub, and the similarities are frankly mind blowing. I see so, so much of his behavior here even though clearly every narc is different. And I am both heartbroken to realize that I've been in another abusive relationship without having any idea, and thankful for my own preservational instincts that maybe pushed him over the edge to decide i wasn't a good enough supply and fuck toy any longer.
I always believed he never would have it in him to cheat. But he mentioned a difficult time in our relationship, one where we almost broke up. I have no memory of it, but now that I reflect on it through this new lens I see the subtle signs... It's also around the time he got herpes. And now I wonder. Everything about him has been a lie. And I can't figure out how or where but I am pretty convinced he has cheated. Probably more than once. I'm getting myself tested asap.
The more I read the more I am grateful that he did the leaving.
I am still deeply grieving and never know how I will feel from day to day. But I know that he will never touch me again, and that I will be healthier and happier without him. I am focusing on myself, finding more work asap, and beginning to move on and learn.
The mysterious stomach pain? Gone. Aversion to showers? Gone. Sleep is getting better, although my appetite is very low. Strange though, right?
Unfortunately his new apartment is very close and we will probably run into one another at some point. I plan on grey rocking/ignoring as hard as I can. I'm kind of anxious about it.
I came back yesterday and cleared out almost all his stuff from my bedroom and piled it in the living room. And it felt really good. I have been cleaning and organizing and I feel a new hint of the peace and calm which is to come.
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